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    Globalization, Wages, and the Quality of Jobs : Five Country Studies
    (World Bank, 2009) Robertson, Raymond ; Brown, Drusilla ; Pierre, Gaëlle ; Sanchez-Puerta, María Laura
    The country studies in this volume analyze the link between globalization and working conditions in Cambodia, El Salvador, Honduras, Indonesia, and Madagascar. These countries vary significantly in population, economic circumstances, region, history, and institutions. All have experienced liberalization and globalization in the last 20 years. The heterogeneity of these countries provides the basis for a useful comparison of the effects of globalization on working conditions. As suggested in the framework, each country study has three main components: a description of the country's experience with globalization, a qualitative part that analyzes country-specific aspects of working conditions, and an analysis of changes in interindustry wage differentials (IIWDs) that can be compared across countries. In general, globalization has been characterized by export-driven foreign direct investment (FDI) concentrated in relatively few sectors. Export-driven FDI in the apparel sector plays a prominent role in each country, although to varying degrees. In Cambodia, apparel made up 82 percent of all merchandise exports in 2003. Nearly two-thirds of that total was destined for the U.S. market. Virtually all factories in the Cambodian garment sector are foreign owned. Honduras rose from being the 34th largest supplier of apparel to the United states (U.S.) market in 1990 to fourth place in 2003. In 2003, two-thirds of all Honduran exports to the U.S. were garments and more than 82 percent of all Honduran workers worked in foreign-owned factories. A similar pattern emerges for El Salvador. For Madagascar, apparel exports from the Zone Franche were the primary force behind the country's remarkable export growth and its transition from exporting primary products to exporting manufactured products between 1990 and 2005. By 2001, Madagascar had become the second most important clothing exporter in Sub-Saharan Africa as measured by total export value.
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    A Fair Share for Women : Cambodia Gender Assessment
    (Phnom Penh, 2004-04) UNIFEM ; World Bank ; ADB ; UNDP ; DFID
    The Government of Cambodia, as well as donors, is increasingly recognizing the importance of addressing gender issues in poverty reduction strategies and development goals in order to promote sustainable development for women and for the whole population. Gender disparities in access to and control of a wide range of human, economic and social resources and opportunities must be eliminated if Cambodia is to reduce poverty. The need to engender the process and outcomes of development strategy formulation and the identification of development goals, targets and indicators requires a comprehensive gender mainstreaming strategy. The State plays a central role in the promotion of gender equality. Thus, a significant commitment from government agencies across sectors and at all levels is needed to examine and revise agency policies and practices to address gender inequality. This report assesses the gender "terrain" in Cambodia. The assessment is based on a review of existing information from government, donor and non-governmental organization (NGO) sources and also from extensive consultations with various stakeholders. Limited original analysis was carried out for this assessment and there are several areas, such as changing gender relations and issues affecting men, which have not been covered due to lack of information or time.
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    Private Solutions for Infrastructure in Cambodia : A Country Framework Report
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2002) Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility
    Infrastructure plays a crucial role in supporting Cambodia's growth and development. Improving access to efficient and affordable water, electricity, transport, and telecommunications services has a major impact on the living standards of individual households. This Country Framework Report (CFR) is one of a series of country reviews aimed at improving the environment for the private sector involvement in infrastructure. This book describes and evaluates the current status and performance of key infrastructure sectors and the policy, regulatory, and institutional environment for involving the private sector in infrastructure sectors. It also helps policymakers to establish future reform and development strategies.