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Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2020-02-27) Corral, Paul ; Irwin, Alexander ; Krishnan, Nandini ; Mahler, Daniel Gerszon ; Vishwanath, TaraFragility and conflict pose a critical threat to the global goal of ending extreme poverty. Between 1990 and 2015, successful development strategies reduced the proportion of the world’s people living in extreme poverty from 36 to 10 percent. But in many fragile and conflict-affected situations (FCS), poverty is stagnating or getting worse. The number of people living in proximity to conflict has nearly doubled worldwide since 2007. In the Middle East and North Africa, one in five people now lives in such conditions. The number of forcibly displaced persons worldwide has also more than doubled in the same period, exceeding 70 million in 2017. If current trends continue, by the end of 2020, the number of extremely poor people living in economies affected by fragility and conflict will exceed the number of poor people in all other settings combined. This book shows why addressing fragility and conflict is vital for poverty goals and charts directions for action. It presents new estimates of welfare in FCS, filling gaps in previous knowledge, and analyzes the multidimensional nature of poverty in these settings. It shows that data deprivation in FCS has prevented an accurate global picture of fragility, poverty, and their interactions, and it explains how innovative new measurement strategies are tackling these challenges. The book discusses the long-term consequences of conflict and introduces a data-driven classification of countries by fragility profile, showing opportunities for tailored policy interventions and the need for monitoring multiple markers of fragility. The book strengthens understanding of what poverty reduction in FCS will require and what it can achieve.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2020) Gentilini, Ugo ; Grosh, Margaret ; Rigolini, Jamele ; Yemtsov, Ruslan ; Gentilini, Ugo ; Grosh, Margaret ; Rigolini, Jamele ; Yemtsov, Ruslan ; Bastagli, Francesca ; Lustig, Nora ; Monsalve Montiel, Emma ; Quan, Siyu ; Ter-Minassian, Teresa ; De Wispelaere, Jurgen ; Lowe, Christina ; George, TinaUniversal basic income (UBI) is emerging as one of the most hotly debated issues in development and social protection policy. But what are the features of UBI? What is it meant to achieve? How do we know, and what don’t we know, about its performance? What does it take to implement it in practice? Drawing from global evidence, literature, and survey data, this volume provides a framework to elucidate issues and trade-offs in UBI with a view to help inform choices around its appropriateness and feasibility in different contexts. Specifically, the book examines how UBI differs from or complements other social assistance programs in terms of objectives, coverage, incidence, adequacy, incentives, effects on poverty and inequality, financing, political economy, and implementation. It also reviews past and current country experiences, surveys the full range of existing policy proposals, provides original results from micro–tax benefit simulations, and sets out a range of considerations around the analytics and practice of UBI.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2018-03-14) World BankThe State of Social Safety Nets 2018 Report examines global trends in the social safety net/social assistance coverage, spending, and program performance based on the World Bank Atlas of Social Protection Indicators of Resilience and Equity (ASPIRE) updated database. The report documents the main social safety net programs that exist globally and their use to alleviate poverty and to build shared prosperity. The 2018 report expands on the 2015 edition, both in administrative and household survey data coverage. A distinct mark of this report is that, for the first time, it tells the story of what happens with SSN/SA programs spending and coverage over time, when the data allow us to do so. This 2018 edition also features two special themes: Social Assistance and Ageing, focusing on the role of old-age social pensions, and Adaptive Social Protection, focusing on what makes SSN systems/programs adaptive to various shocks.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2018) Alderman, Harold ; Gentilini, Ugo ; Yemtsov, Ruslan ; Alderman, Harold ; Gentilini, Ugo ; Yemtsov, Ruslan ; Abdalla, Moustafa ; Al-Shawarby, Sherine ; Bhattacharya, Shrayana ; Falcao, Vanita Leah ; Hastuti ; Hernández, Citlalli ; Oliveira, Victor ; Prell, Mark ; Puri, Raghav ; Scott, John ; Smallwood, David ; Sooriyamudali, Chinthani ; Sumarto, Sudarno ; Tiehen, Laura ; Tilakaratna, Ganga ; Timmer, PeterMost of the people in low and middle-income countries covered by social protection receive assistance in the form of in-kind food. The origin of such support is rooted in countries’ historical pursuit of three interconnected objectives, namely attaining self-sufficiency in food, managing domestic food prices, and providing income support to the poor. This volume sheds light on the complex, bumpy and non-linear process of how some flagship food-based social protection programs have evolved over time, and how they currently work. In particular, it lays out the broad trends in reforms, including a growing move from in-kind modalities to cash transfers, from universality to targeting, and from agriculture to social protection. Case studies from Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Sri Lanka, and United States document the specific experiences of managing the process of reform and implementation, including enhancing our understanding of the opportunities and challenges with different social protection transfer modalities.