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Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-08-21) Soh, Hoon Sahib ; Koh, Youngsun ; Aridi, Anwar ; editorsThe Republic of Korea today is a highly industrialized, global leader in innovation and technology. It is the 10th largest economy in the world and has a per capita income approaching the average of OECD countries. In the 1950s, however, it was one of the world’s poorest countries, with decidedly bleak prospects. Its transformation has made Korea a well-known case study of successful development. "Innovative Korea: Leveraging Innovation and Technology for Development" summarizes the sources of Korea’s remarkable growth and the policies and institutional reforms that made it possible. The report focuses on Korea’s successful transition from a middle-income to a high-income economy. Korea escaped from the “middle-income trap” by fundamentally transforming its growth paradigm to a more private-sector-led model emphasizing market competition, innovation, and technology. Compared to the previous emphasis on large firms and industries, the government became more focused on promoting small and medium enterprises and technology entrepreneurs. Exports expanded significantly through greater integration in global value chains. Already-high levels of human capital development were complemented by an expanded social safety net and a more integrated approach to education and training. Korea succeeded by focusing on the foundations of long-run growth, building global capabilities in innovation and technology, and adapting and evolving its growth paradigm to promote new sources of growth. Innovative Korea, jointly prepared by the World Bank and the Korea Development Institute, provides useful insights on Korea’s development story and practical lessons for public policy making.
The Global Findex Database 2021: Financial Inclusion, Digital Payments, and Resilience in the Age of COVID-19(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-06-29) Demirguc-Kunt, Asli ; Klapper, Leora ; Singer, Dorothe ; Ansar, Saniya ; Singer, DorotheThe fourth edition of the Global Findex offers a lens into how people accessed and used financial services during the COVID-19 pandemic, when mobility restrictions and health policies drove increased demand for digital services of all kinds. The Global Findex is the world’s most comprehensive database on financial inclusion. It is also the only global demand-side data source allowing for global and regional cross-country analysis to provide a rigorous and multidimensional picture of how adults save, borrow, make payments, and manage financial risks. Global Findex 2021 data were collected from national representative surveys of about 128,000 adults in more than 120 economies. The latest edition follows the 2011, 2014, and 2017 editions, and it includes a number of new series measuring financial health and resilience and contains more granular data on digital payment adoption, including merchant and government payments. The Global Findex is an indispensable resource for financial service practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and development professionals.
Global Investment Competitiveness Report 2019/2020: Rebuilding Investor Confidence in Times of Uncertainty(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2020-05-27) World Bank GroupThe Global Investment Competitiveness Report 2019/2020 provides novel analytical insights, empirical evidence, and actionable recommendations for governments seeking to rebuild investor confidence in times of uncertainty. It focuses on the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) in alleviating the impact of the COVID-19 crisis and boosting countries’ economic resilience. It highlights FDI’s contributions to providing a critical source of external finance, creating jobs, lifting people out of poverty, and raising productivity. The report presents results of a survey of more than 2,400 business executives representing multinational corporations in 10 large developing countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam. Results of the survey, as well as the report’s new global database of regulatory risk, highlight the critical role of government actions in reducing investor risk and increasing policy predictability for rebuilding investor confidence. The report also assesses the impact of FDI on poverty, inequality, employment, and business performance using firm- and household-level evidence from various countries. It shows that FDI in developing countries yields benefits to firms and workers—including more and better-paid jobs—but governments need to remain vigilant about possible adverse consequences on income distribution. Lastly, the report articulates priorities for investment promotion agencies and other stakeholders seeking to strengthen their countries’ investment competitiveness and leverage FDI for a robust economic recovery.