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    An Investment Perspective on Global Value Chains
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-05-13) Qiang, Christine Zhenwei ; Liu, Yan ; Steenbergen, Victor ; Heher, Ulla ; Paganini, Monica ; Eltgen, Maximilian Philip ; Chong, Yew Keat
    This book examines the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) in global value chains (GVCs). To stimulate economic transformation through GVCs, policy makers in developing countries need to better understand the business strategies of multinational corporations (MNCs), internationalization pathways for domestic firms, and how policies can create a favorable environment for both types of firms. Part I brings together the latest theories and empirical evidence to illustrate the mutually reinforcing relationship between FDI and GVC participation. It argues that MNCs have driven the phenomenal rise of GVCs in the past three decades as they have unbundled production processes and spread their networks on a global scale. Domestic firms benefit considerably from their participation in GVCs as they learn from MNCs through investment, partnerships, or trade. Part II includes six case studies examining the approaches of developing countries to leveraging FDI to stimulate and facilitate GVC participation and upgrading. The cases include Kenya (horticulture), Honduras (apparel), Malaysia (electronics), and Mauritius (tourism). Another case focuses on the digital economy for the Republic of Korea, India, and China. Each case study presents a different approach by which policy makers have leveraged FDI to stimulate and facilitate GVC participation and upgrading. A quantitative case study on Rwanda and West Bengal, India, uses firm- and transaction-level data to provide new insights into the dynamics between MNCs and domestic firms in selected value chains. The report also discusses the recent COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic and its potential impact on FDI and GVCs. The outbreak has triggered new questions about GVCs and accelerated precrisis global trends such as digitalization and economic nationalism. How MNCs and their supplier firms respond to the supply and demand shocks as well as policy uncertainties will play a critical role in crisis responses and recovery.
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    The State of Economic Inclusion Report 2021: The Potential to Scale
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2021-01-19) Andrews, Colin ; de Montesquiou, Aude ; Arevalo Sanchez, Ines ; Dutta, Puja Vasudeva ; Paul, Boban Varghese ; Samaranayake, Sadna ; Heisey, Janet ; Clay, Timothy ; Chaudhary, Sarang ; Archibald, Edward ; Bossuroy, Thomas ; Premand, Patrick ; Samaranayake, Sadna ; Singh, Paramveer ; Ranjan, Ajit ; Guha, Kshovan ; Patel, Gautam ; Whisson, Isabel ; Haque, Rozina ; Kedroske, Julie ; Sulaiman, Munshi ; Matin, Imran ; Das, Narayan ; Hashemi, Syed ; Asensio, Raul
    The State of Economic Inclusion Report 2021 sheds light on one of the most intractable challenges faced by development policy makers and practitioners: transforming the economic lives of the world’s poorest and most vulnerable people. Economic inclusion programs are a bundle of coordinated, multidimensional interventions that support individuals, households, and communities so they can raise their incomes and build their assets. Programs targeting the extreme poor and vulnerable groups are now under way in 75 countries. This report presents data and evidence from 219 of these programs, which are reaching over 90 million beneficiaries. Governments now lead the scale-up of economic inclusion interventions, often building on pre-existing national programs such as safety nets, livelihoods and jobs, and financial inclusion, and 93 percent of the total beneficiaries are covered by government programs. The report offers four important contributions: • A detailed analysis of the nature of these programs, the people living in extreme poverty and vulnerability who they support, and the organizational challenges and opportunities inherent in designing and leading them. • An evidence review of 80 quantitative and qualitative evaluations of economic inclusion programs in 37 countries. • The first multicountry costing study including both government-led and other economic inclusion programs, indicating that programs show potential for cost efficiencies when integrated into national systems. • Four detailed case studies featuring programs underway in Bangladesh, India, Peru, and the Sahel, which highlight the programmatic and institutional adaptations required to scale in quite diverse contexts. Data from the report are available on the PEI Data Portal ( where users can explore and submit data to build on this baseline.