Stand alone books

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  • Publication
    Land Policies for Resilient and Equitable Growth in Africa
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-22) Deininger, Klaus; Goyal, Aparajita
    Land institutions and policies will be critical to help African countries respond to the challenges of climate change, urban expansion, structural transformation, and gender equality. Together, they affect urban dwellers’ ability to access productive jobs, live in decent housing, and breathe clean air; farmers’ and women entrepreneurs’ capacity to insure against shocks, increase productivity, and diversify income sources; and governments’ ability to plan, tax property to provide services, and manage public land in a way that provides sustained local benefits by attracting investment, including via climate finance. "Land Policies for Resilient and Equitable Growth in Africa" draws on a wealth of data, examples, and studies from Africa and beyond to show that regulatory and institutional reforms can harness this potential by improving quality, coverage, usefulness, and sustainability of documented land rights. By identifying viable reforms with transformative potential that fully harness digital opportunities, this book provides practical guidance to governments seeking to enhance their land institutions’ performance; to their partners supporting such reform; and to policymakers, land professionals, scholars, and civil society aiming to lay the foundations for Africa to better utilize its economic, human, and ecological potential. "This volume provides an essential reference, based on an impressive review of the literature on land issues in Africa and an exhaustive account of policies and policy experiments aimed to promote the efficient use of this key resource for the development of the continent." — François Bourguignon, Professor Emeritus, Paris School of Economics "Many African governments will find this report highly useful. It is full of little-known successes and practical ways by which they can improve their land policies by harnessing new technologies. Africa’s urban population will rapidly triple: clarifying land rights is an urgent priority in building the successful cities of the future. By 2050, if the inherited policies of the past were retained, today’s youth would be struggling in unliveable mega-slums." — Sir Paul Collier, Professor of Economics & Public Policy, Oxford University "This is an excellent study that combines insights from years of research with practical insights for policy and action on the ground." — Jyotsna Puri, Associate Vice President, Strategy and Knowledge, International Fund for Agricultural Development "Land institutions affect the effective use of land but also the functioning of credit, labor, and product markets. Nowhere are these issues more relevant than in Africa, and this report is important and timely." — Johan Swinnen, Director General, International Food Policy Research Institute "This report illustrates how legal and institutional reforms that capitalize on digital opportunities can strengthen land institutions and policies to optimize land use, enhance people’s rights, narrow gender disparities, and catalyze structural transformation in a manner that aligns with the continent’s distinctive context and serve as a pivotal instrument for social and economic advancement." — Maximo Torero, Chief Economist, Food and Agriculture Organization
  • Publication
    The Great Reversal: Prospects, Risks, and Policies in International Development Association (IDA) Countries
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-15) Chrimes, Tommy; Gootjes, Bram; Kose, M. Ayhan; Wheeler, Collette
    The 75 economies eligible for low-interest loans and grants from the World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA) had made notable progress against some important development objectives over the first two decades of this century. Despite this, on the eve of the COVID-19 pandemic, significant development gaps persisted, income convergence with advanced economies was slowing, and some vulnerabilities were rising. The shock of the pandemic and subsequent overlapping crises has exacerbated the challenges facing these economies and led to a reversal in development: over 2020-24, per capita incomes in half of IDA countries—the largest share since the start of this century—have been growing more slowly than those of wealthy economies. One out of three IDA countries is poorer than it was on the eve of the pandemic. Poverty remains stubbornly high, hunger has surged, and, amid fiscal constraints and rising investment needs, the development outlook could take an even bleaker turn—especially if weak growth prospects persist. IDA countries have several important demographic and resource advantages that could—if leveraged effectively—help close development gaps. Reaping the benefits of their advantages and meeting investment needs will require them to undertake comprehensive policy measures to bolster fiscal and monetary frameworks, enhance human capital development, and improve the quality of institutions. These policies should be complemented with significant and consistent international financial support as well as strong cooperation on global policy issues.
  • Publication
    Revenue Administration Handbook
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-02-22) Junquera-Varela, Raúl Félix; Lucas-Mas, Cristian Óliver
    Revenue Administration Handbook provides a comprehensive overview of the structure and management of tax and customs administrations, covering topics such as tax policy design considerations that impact tax administration, institutional setup and strategic planning, analytical capacities and maturity models, core business processes, and tax sanctions. It also presents pioneering work in the field of digital transformation and how to build data science capabilities, including a roadmap for policy makers and tax officials on how to incorporate and manage disruptive technologies, such as machine learning, into building modern revenue administrations while taking into account their respective maturity levels. This practical manual provides examples from real-life World Bank projects so that policy makers, tax officials, information technology experts, and information and communication technology providers can better understand the needs of revenue administrations to design and implement the most appropriate technology solutions. This reference work is intended to serve as a tool to facilitate the progress and modernization of tax and customs administrations worldwide, and to reach not only tax experts and policy makers, but also other government officials, businesses and academic communities, as well as the larger public, since all are relevant stakeholders with an active role in day-to-day revenue administration operations. ------------------------- “This is a very timely and useful reference for tax practitioners and stakeholders, coming at a time when tax administrators continue to grapple with the challenge of how to accelerate the modernization of technology systems to remain effective in a rapidly advancing and technology driven business environment.” MOSES WASIKE, Senior financial management specialist, World Bank “This is an impressive piece of work that pulls together many different strains on tax administration.” JEFFREY OWENS, Director, Global Tax Policy Center, Vienna University “Applying several technologies discussed in this handbook in an innovative manner will definitely help leapfrog countries to pursue a digital transformation agenda, especially in the areas of efficiency, productivity, and citizen satisfaction.”
  • Publication
    Falling Long-Term Growth Prospects: Trends, Expectations, and Policies
    (World Bank : Washington, DC, 2024-02-01) Kose, M. Ayhan; Ohnsorge, Franziska
    A structural growth slowdown is underway across the world: at current trends, the global potential growth rate is expected to fall to a three-decade low over the remainder of the 2020s. Nearly all the forces that have powered growth and prosperity since the early 1990s have weakened, not only because of a series of shocks to the global economy over the past three years. A persistent and broad-based decline in long-term growth prospects imperils the ability of emerging market and developing economies to combat poverty, tackle climate change, and meet other key development objectives. These challenges call for an ambitious policy response at the national and global levels. This book presents the first detailed analysis of the growth slowdown and a rich menu of policy options to deliver better growth outcomes.
  • Publication
    The Labor Market Impact of Forced Displacement: Jobs in Host Communities in Colombia, Ethiopia, Jordan, and Uganda (Executive Summary booklet)
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-12-11) von der Goltz, Jan; Schuettler, Kirsten; Bousquet, Julie; Kebede, Tewodros Aragie
    Communities that host refugees are often concerned about how their labor markets will change. Although high-income countries attract most policy attention, low- and middle-income countries host three of every four refugees worldwide. "The Labor Market Impact of Forced Displacement: Jobs in Host Communities in Colombia, Ethiopia, Jordan, and Uganda" seeks to address some of the key questions that arise in these host countries: How does forced displacement affect job outcomes for hosts? What effect do work permit schemes have? How does labor market competition influence attitudes? And what policies can support better job outcomes for hosts and refugees? To address these questions, the book relies on new primary data designed to study host community labor markets and on a careful comparative analysis of existing data. Its four focus countries represent low-income and middle-income economies as well as diverse policy contexts.In its key finding, "The Labor Market Impact of Forced Displacement" shows that across the focus countries, hosting refugees has modest or even positive overall labor market effects. In important instances, however, groups of host workers face adversity from greater labor market competition, while others benefit. The book explains how labor market restrictions rarely prevent refugees entirely from working but shape the type and quality of work they do, their contribution to the economy, and the effects of their participation on hosts. It shows that refugees matter not only as competitors but also as consumers, and it explains the importance of access to capital for hosts and refugees alike in economies where self-employment is key. It also discusses how hosts’ concerns over labor market competition influence their attitudes toward refugees.The book seeks to provide a basis for more confident jobs policy making in host communities. It offers lessons on how to analyze local labor market characteristics that shape outcomes for refugees and hosts alike and on how to think about the likely effects of policies. It encourages policy makers to support workers who face negative impacts—and to proactively seize the opportunities likely to arise.
  • Publication
    The Business of the State
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-11-28) World Bank
    The state, as an owner of businesses, competes and collaborates with the private sector at the firm level, market level, and economywide, and this involvement has profound implications for investment and growth. Governments actively participate in commercial markets in different forms, from controlling the production of goods and services to investing in firms as a minority shareholder. The impact of state participation on an economy’s growth depends on the type of public-private ownership, the types of markets, and the importance of those markets in the economy. The impact also depends on how policies and institutions regulate both the businesses with state ownership and the markets in which they are active. The Business of the State uses new evidence covering 91 countries from the World Bank’s Global Businesses of the State database to highlight the distinction between businesses of the state and traditionally understood state-owned enterprises. The report analyzes how different ownership arrangements across sectors and institutional settings affect private investment, productivity, technology adoption, and job creation. It also analyzes how these government arrangements influence the ability of economies to respond to shocks, from pandemics to climate change. The report proposes a clear analytical framework for understanding the consequences of relying on businesses of the state to attain specific development goals.
  • Publication
    The Government Analytics Handbook: Leveraging Data to Strengthen Public Administration
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-28) editors; Rogger, Daniel; Schuster, Christian
    The Government Analytics Handbook presents frontier evidence and practitioner insights on how to leverage data to strengthen public administration. Covering a range of microdata sources—such as administrative data and public servant surveys—as well as tools and resources for undertaking the analytics, it transforms the ability of governments to take a data-informed approach to diagnose and improve how public organizations work. Readers can order the book as a single volume in print or digital formats, or visit:, for modular access and additional hands-on tools. The Handbook is a must-have for practitioners, policy makers, academics, and government agencies.
  • Publication
    Working with Smallholders: A Handbook for Firms Building Sustainable Supply Chains (Third Edition)
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-09-18) International Finance Corporation
    A number of global trends, such as concurrent rises in incomes and urbanization, are driving the increased consumption of meat, dairy, and biofuels. Meeting the demand for products will require considerable increases in global production, particularly in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, where smallholder farming predominates and yields remain low. At the same time, it will be essential to promote improved food quality, to reduce negative impacts on health, while additional initiatives must address how to reduce food losses. Climate change is bringing further stressors. These challenges also present opportunities to help smallholder farmers boost their productivity by facilitating better access to inputs, technology, knowledge, financing, and markets. Agribusinesses are increasingly working with smallholder farmers in low- and middle-income countries to secure agricultural commodities, which help to boost rural incomes and economic growth. Smallholders also represent a growing market for farm inputs, information, and financial services. 'Working with Smallholders: A Handbook for Firms Building Sustainable Supply Chains' shows agribusinesses how to develop more sustainable, resilient, and productive supply chains and the substantial impact of doing so on development. The book compiles innovative solutions and cutting-edge ideas to meet the challenges, and illustrating these points through a variety of case studies from initiatives around the world. This third edition builds on the lessons learned and provides updates in leading trends and technologies from those provided in the second edition published in 2018 including the potential for digital technologies and increased demands for sustainable farming. Although written principally to outline training and assistance needs and opportunities for the private sector -- whether in high-income or low- and middle-income markets -- the handbook may be useful to the staffs of governmental or nongovernmental agricultural development programs working with smallholders, as well as to academic and research institutions.
  • Publication
    Innovative Korea: Leveraging Innovation and Technology for Development
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-08-21) Soh, Hoon Sahib; Koh, Youngsun; Aridi, Anwar
    The Republic of Korea today is a highly industrialized, global leader in innovation and technology. It is the 10th largest economy in the world and has a per capita income approaching the average of OECD countries. In the 1950s, however, it was one of the world’s poorest countries, with decidedly bleak prospects. Its transformation has made Korea a well-known case study of successful development. "Innovative Korea: Leveraging Innovation and Technology for Development" summarizes the sources of Korea’s remarkable growth and the policies and institutional reforms that made it possible. The report focuses on Korea’s successful transition from a middle-income to a high-income economy. Korea escaped from the “middle-income trap” by fundamentally transforming its growth paradigm to a more private-sector-led model emphasizing market competition, innovation, and technology. Compared to the previous emphasis on large firms and industries, the government became more focused on promoting small and medium enterprises and technology entrepreneurs. Exports expanded significantly through greater integration in global value chains. Already-high levels of human capital development were complemented by an expanded social safety net and a more integrated approach to education and training. Korea succeeded by focusing on the foundations of long-run growth, building global capabilities in innovation and technology, and adapting and evolving its growth paradigm to promote new sources of growth. Innovative Korea, jointly prepared by the World Bank and the Korea Development Institute, provides useful insights on Korea’s development story and practical lessons for public policy making.
  • Publication
    Detox Development: Repurposing Environmentally Harmful Subsidies
    (Washington, DC : World Bank, 2023-06-15) Damania, Richard; Balseca, Esteban; de Fontaubert, Charlotte; Gill, Joshua; Kim, Kichan; Rentschler, Jun; Russ, Jason; Zaveri, Esha
    Clean air, land, and oceans are critical for human health and nutrition and underpin much of the world’s economy. Yet they suffer from degradation, poor management, and overuse due to government subsidies. "Detox Development: Repurposing Environmentally Harmful Subsidies" examines the impact of subsidies on these foundational natural assets. Explicit and implicit subsidies—estimated to exceed US$7 trillion per year—not only promote inefficiencies but also cause much environmental harm. Poor air quality is responsible for approximately 1 in 5 deaths globally. And as the new analyses in this report show, a significant number of these deaths can be attributed to fossil fuel subsidies. Agriculture is the largest user of land worldwide, feeding the world and employing 1 billion people, including 78 percent of the world’s poor. But it is subsidized in ways that promote inefficiency, inequity, and unsustainability. Subsidies are shown to drive the deterioration of water quality and increase water scarcity by incentivizing overextraction. In addition, they are responsible for 14 percent of annual deforestation, incentivizing the production of crops that are cultivated near forests. These subsidies are also implicated in the spread of zoonotic and vector-borne diseases, especially malaria. Finally, oceans support the world’s fisheries and supply about 3 billion people with almost 20 percent of their protein intake from animals. Yet they are in a collective state of crisis, with more than 34 percent of fisheries overfished, exacerbated by open-access regimes and capacity-increasing subsidies. Although the literature on subsidies is large, this report fills significant knowledge gaps using new data and methods. In doing so, it enhances understanding of the scale and impact of subsidies and offers solutions to reform or repurpose them in efficient and equitable ways. The aim is to enhance understanding of the magnitude, consequences, and drivers of policy successes and failures in order to render reforms more achievable.