Foreign Trade, FDI, and Capital Flows Study

114 items available

Permanent URI for this collection

Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa, home to more than 1 billion people, half of whom will be under 25 years old by 2050, is a diverse ...

Items in this collection

Now showing 1 - 10 of 11
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    CEMAC: Deepening Regional Integration to Advance Growth and Prosperity
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-06-29) World Bank
    The Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC), which consists of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon, is one of the oldest regional groupings in Africa. The main objectives for achieving this are: (i) the creation of a fully functional and effective customs union, (ii) the establishment of a robust system of macroeconomic surveillance, and (iii) the harmonization of sectoral policies and legal frameworks that will create a common market for goods, capital, and services.Despite this ambitious vision, regional integration in the CEMAC zone remains shallow.The oil price shock of 2014-15 severely affected the six CEMAC economies and promoted re-commitment to deepening regional integration.At the regional level, the PREF also aims to: (i) improve the coordination of public financial management (PFM) and fiscal policy; (ii) accelerate regional integration through improvements to the regional economic plan; (iii) improve the business climate; (iv) increase economic diversification; (v) enhance monetary policy transmission mechanisms; and (vi) improve prudential banking supervision.CEMAC is right to focus on reforms to deepening regional integration as a driver of growth.The objective of this Regional Study on CEMAC is to support policy makers in CEMAC in efforts to strengthen regional integration to support economic growth and to reduce the need for economic adjustment. The Regional Study focuses mainly on what can be done at the regional level to support regional integration, macro-stability and long-term growth in the CEMAC area; as such, the Regional Study aims to complement country-specific policies and initiatives to support macro-stabilization, economic development and integration.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    Niger: Leveraging Export Diversification to Foster Growth
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-12-09) World Bank
    Niger’s Vision 2035 acknowledges the country has little choice but to create ‘a competitive anddiversified economy.’ Economic diversification is a cornerstone component of the Economic Orientation Document (EOD) 2016-19 and the PDES 2017-21. The EOD defines Niger’s economic diversification as moving exports away from natural resources and increasing the value-added component of exports as the foundation for its agro-based industrialization and employment creation policies. Hence, an exports diversification strategy is akin to the country’s economic diversification and, not surprisingly, the PDES contains several axes of policy interventions supporting it. However, Niger faces serious structural challenges to diversify into new productive activities. The country is landlocked, exporting costs are high and, given multiple infrastructure and logistics gaps, access to markets is difficult beyond neighboring regional markets. Rapid population growth and low human capital turns into a low skilled population. Volatile economic growth, reliant on a few commodity exports that closely follow the vagaries of weather and boom and busts of international prices, makes hardly obtained poverty gains vulnerable.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    Republic of Sudan Diagnostic Trade Integration Study Update: Reducing Trade Costs to Increase Competitiveness and Rresilience
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-10-31) World Bank Group
    The Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS) update identifies priority actions in support of the Government of Sudan (GOS) commitment to increase trade and diversify the economy. The current study builds on the earlier 2008 DTIS by identifying the major factors holding back the increase of agricultural exports and economic diversification. The report identifies a package of measures that will support Sudan to more effectively realize its economic potential. The DTIS Update presents an updated action matrix that summarizes the recommended policy reforms. This matrix was validated with a wide variety of stakeholders in Khartoum in September 2014. Together, the action points will contribute to reducing trade costs, thereby enabling Sudanese enterprises and farmers to compete more successfully in regional and global markets and realize the GOS objectives of expanding and diversifying exports for increased economic growth. The recommendations accept that any changes in tariff schedules should be ‘revenue neutral,’ given the existing challenging fiscal situation.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    Republic of Malawi Diagnostic Trade Integration Study Update : Reducing Trade Costs to Promote Competitiveness and Inclusive Growth
    (Washington, DC, 2014-03-25) World Bank
    The diagnostic trade integration study (DTIS) update identifies the trade related constraints holding back Malawi from diversifying and deepening its production base, and increasing trade. The DTIS update identifies and quantifies specific trade costs that determine the availability and price of inputs and the ability of producers to get their products to regional and international markets. The report focuses on tariff policies, regulatory issues impacting on trade, trade facilitation and logistics, and policies affecting agricultural trade and trade in services. Recognizing that the (enhanced) integrated framework and the DTIS (including the 2003 DTIS for Malawi) have not been effective in addressing many of the broader issues requiring large-scale physical investments in most countries, this DTIS update focuses on specific trade related policy and regulatory issues within the mandate and policy space of the ministry of trade and the national implementation unit or similar implementation mechanisms. In this context, the report is structured as follows: chapter one gives introduction. Chapter two outlines the current macroeconomic position and the level of trade openness, summarizes the status of the business enabling environment. Chapter three describes Malawi's current trade policy with a detailed review of the existing tariff schedules. Chapter four addresses a range of the key regulatory issues that raise costs for all producers in Malawi. Chapter five looks in depth at how the trade and regulatory policies within the agricultural sector impact on competitiveness. Finally, chapter six addresses the important issues of trade in services through focusing on professional services such as engineering, accounting, and law.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    Economic and Statistical Analysis of Tourism in Uganda
    (Washington, DC, 2013-07) World Bank Group
    The Ministry of Tourism, Wildlife, and Antiquities (MTWA) instituted a sample survey of tourists exiting Uganda in 2012-the Tourism Expenditure and Motivation Survey (TEMS). This survey collected data on tourist expenditures, duration of stay, tourist activities, sites visited, levels of satisfaction, and suggestions for improvements in the sector. The purpose of this report is to present the results of the economic analysis of tourist expenditures, and the associated statistical analysis, to inform government decisions on how to increase the contribution that tourism makes to the growth of the Ugandan economy. The economic analysis of tourism based on the TEMS survey focuses on the impact of tourist expenditures on the economy. The scope is therefore limited to the impact of tourism exports, but these exports are important contributors to the development of the Ugandan economy, increasing foreign exchange earnings, and improving the balance of payments. The data show that leisure and cultural tourists spend 30 percent to 100 percent more than other types of tourists per visit to Uganda. This substantial difference in spending makes these tourists an attractive target in government efforts to increase the economic contribution of the tourism sector and reinforces the importance of strengthening the marketing of Ugandan tourism. The TEMS survey estimates that roughly 500,000 foreign tourists spent at least one night in Uganda in 2012, and nearly 75,000 of these were leisure or cultural tourists. In 2013 more than one million nonresidents visited Uganda, and it is estimated that about half of them of them stay at least one night. Tourists' overall satisfaction with their trip to Uganda is high. However, local transport in Uganda and insufficient visitor information are the most frequently cited sources of dissatisfaction and suggested areas for improvement.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    Estimating Trade Flows, Describing Trade Relationships, and Identifying Barriers to Cross-Border Trade Between Cameroon and Nigeria
    (Washington, DC, 2013-05-07) World Bank
    Cameroon and Nigeria share a common border of nearly 1,700km and both countries have strong historical and cultural ties. However, the partnership between the two countries has had its difficult periods, most recently when the relationship turned hostile over the disputed Bakassi Peninsula, and economic linkages between the economies remain limited. Expanding trade between the two countries could play a critical role in accelerating economic development and regional integration by opening up new markets for producers, and allowing them to benefit from economies of scale. This will require reducing barriers to cross-border trade, allowing increased trade flows to reach the larger market, and permitting private sector producers to increase the scale of their activities. Removing barriers to trade between the two neighbors is likely to benefit particularly relatively remote areas of both countries. The study finds that regulatory and security barriers at the border and along the road remain key impediments to trade. The remainder of this report proceeds as follows. Section one describes drivers for cross border trade such as historical relations, economic factors, and the policy environment. The next section describes the reality of trade flows by describing existing trade corridors and estimating current trade flows. Section three describes how goods are actually traded across borders between the two countries, and how different actors are involved. Section four describes the barriers to trade, and identifies which barriers are most important. Section five describes the potential for increasing trade. Section six summarizes the findings and presents prioritized recommendations for policy reform.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    Liberia - Tapping Nature’s Bounty for the Benefits of All : Diagnostic Trade Integration Study, Volume 1. Main Report
    (Washington, DC, 2008-12) World Bank
    Liberia is a rich country, badly managed. This is a favorite comment of President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf and an accurate one. The bad management is well-known, though perhaps not its duration and depth. Created in 1847, the country is far older than almost all others in sub- Saharan Africa. But for most of this time, it was ruled by an elite descended from African-American settlers who ignored or exploited the indigenous people. The result was growth without development, stark inequality, social tension and the seeds of unrest. The political order was turned upside down in a bloody coup in 1980, but bad management continued. Within ten years the country descended into civil war from which it only emerged in 2003. The 90 percent decline in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is possibly the most extreme economic collapse ever experienced in the world. This study lays out a comprehensive pro poor trade strategy in support of the medium-term growth agenda of Liberia. The new Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) for Liberia recognizes all this. Indeed, this Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS) and the PRS were developed in parallel and with considerable cross-fertilization. A joint workshop was held on the productive sectors in February 2008. The role of this study is therefore to reinforce the message contained in the PRS, deepen the analysis, and offer some practical next steps.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    Burkina Faso : The Challenge of Export Diversification for a Landlocked Country
    (Washington, DC, 2007-09) World Bank
    The objective of the Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS) is to build the foundation for accelerated growth by enhancing the integration of its economy into regional and global markets. Burkina Faso is one of the best economic performers in West Africa, yet its integration into the world economy, as measured by its trade and foreign investment performance, is among the lowest. Economic growth has been strong, higher than all other countries in the sub-region. This has been achieved in spite of droughts and cricket invasions, and the turmoil in Cote d'Ivoire, and without significant oil or mining exports. Macroeconomic management has been consistently strong, and inflation low. At the same time, its export to gross domestic product (GDP) ratio is only one-third that of Senegal or Mali, while foreign directs investment inflows are far below the average for sub-Saharan Africa. At a time when globalization is determining the fate of nations, Burkina Faso seems to be on the sidelines and doing fairly well. If the country is to raise economic growth rates to the levels necessary to make major inroads on poverty, and reduce its aid dependence, it will need to improve its performance on exports and foreign investment. Implementation of a weighing program to fight against overloading of merchandise, coordinated along all the corridors.The challenge for Burkina Faso is to step up efforts to consolidate this sound performance in order to accelerate growth and deepen the fight against poverty. These efforts will be deployed on three fronts. The first consists in maintaining macroeconomic stability to improve the international competitiveness of the economy; the second, diversifying exports to expand trade and stimulate growth; and the third, strengthening social sectors and small operators in order to make growth inclusive and to maximize its impact on poverty reduction. This study focuses on the second challenge, taking into account the importance of participation by small operators.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    The Gambia - From Entrepot to Exporter and Eco-tourism : Diagnostic Trade Integration Study for the Integrated Framework for Trade-related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries
    (Washington, DC, 2007-07) World Bank
    For decades, Gambia has served as a regional entrepot, using the river as a transportation link to the hinterland. Relatively low import taxes, well-functioning port and customs services, and limited administrative barriers reinforced Gambia's position as a trading center. About 80 percent of Gambian merchandise exports consist of re-exports to the sub-region goods imported into Gambia are transported unofficially into Senegal and beyond. Gambian economy and especially its public finances are highly dependent on this trade because imported goods destined for re-export pay the normal import duties. Recently, however, re-exports have declined due to a combination of tensions with Senegal, harmonization of import and sales taxes in the region, and improved port and customs operations in Senegal and other neighboring countries. The current re-export trade is unlikely to be sustainable, calling for a strategy to build growth on a more secure foundation. The report identifies directions for establishing a more sustainable foundation for the country's position as a gateway to the region by improving the transport system and reinforcing its efficient trade facilitation services, while recognizing the limited potential for growth. The study makes detailed recommendations on strengthening and diversifying domestic production of goods and services in the areas of tourism, groundnuts, other agriculture, and fishing, by improving the business climate as well as implementing sector-specific reforms.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Publication
    Kenya : Unleashing the Potential for Trade and Growth
    (Washington, DC, 2007-02) World Bank
    There is tremendous potential for trade to play a key role in driving and sustaining growth and poverty reduction in Kenya. There is significant potential for greater participation in international markets to support growth and poverty reduction. Kenya has had some notable achievements: in cut flowers and fresh vegetables. This report assesses Kenya's trade performance, and identifies key domestic constraints to its further integration into the global economy. Furthermore, the report advances a set of recommendations to tackle these constraints, with a focus on how trade can contribute to growth and poverty reduction in the country. Specifically, the report aims to support the Government o f Kenya (GOK) to: realize its Investment Program for the Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation 2003-2007 (IP-ERS), to implement its National Export Strategy (NES); to implement its Private Sector Development strategy and formulate a trade-policy strategy.