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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-06-30) World Bank GroupAs part of the Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF) program for Trade-Related Assistance to Least Developed Countries (LCDs), which Myanmar joined in April 2013, the Government of Myanmar has asked the World Bank Group (WBG) to be the implementing agency for a Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS). The general objectives of a DTIS are: (i) to assist the government in mainstreaming trade and competitiveness in the country’s overall development strategy; (ii) to provide a diagnostic and analytical tool to prioritize and sequence key reforms in the area of trade and competitiveness; and (iii) to provide a platform for development partners to coordinate action and align trade related assistance with government priorities. This DTIS has identified a number of domestic and external constraints facing Myanmar as it strives to leverage regional and global integration for inclusive, export-led growth. Based on this, the current report provides analytical input on the linkages between trade and poverty, and highlights key steps to remove bottlenecks in terms of trade policy and trade facilitation.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-02) World Bank GroupThis report seeks to shed light on the ways in which the services sector has contributed to Lao PDR’s competitiveness and integration into the global marketplace. It focuses on two complementary roles that the services sector plays: first, as an avenue for export diversification and growth and, second,by providing inputs into other productive sectors of the economy, such as the manufacturing sector. As economies grow, the importance of the services sector generally increases, but its role as an enabler of other sectors of the economy in moving up the value chain is frequently overlooked. However, the services sector is critical in raising competitiveness of these other sectors to boost growth and create better quality jobs. The main policy recommendations that emerge from this report are aimed at increasing competition in the services sector, reducing distortive regulations, and opening up the sector to foreign participation, building up skills, both at the individual and at the firm level, and investing in hard and soft infrastructure to promote the development of the sector.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-02) Ruppert Bulmer, Elizabeth ; Hollweg, Claire H.As countries become increasingly integrated into the global economy, increased trade links with other countries translate into increased access to better or cheaper imports and increased demand for exports. Both can have an impact on consumers, producers and workers through household consumption, household production, and labor incentives. The channels through which increased trade integration can affect labor include: (i) the consumption channel, typically leading to an increase in purchasing power and therefore higher real wages, and (ii) the employment effect due to increased labor demand. The extent of these gains to trade will depend on the incidence of trade policies or trade shocks; in other words, the impact will depend on which products become less expensive, which sectors increase demand for skilled or unskilled labor, and which workers can access these new jobs. This report utilizes a range of methodologies and datasets that implicitly link trade and jobs; by using these complementary analytical approaches, we generate multiple perspectives on Lao PDR’s recent labor market outcomes, and their implications for Lao PDR’s current and future trade competitiveness.
Publication(World Bank Group, Washington, DC, 2015-07-01) Nedeljkovic, Milan ; Varela, Gonzalo ; Savini Zangrandi, MicheleThe analysis presented in this report suggests that Indonesia’s recent current account deficit results from the interaction of short, medium and long run factors that can be grouped into four blocks: external shocks, domestic policies, international integration, and stage of development and demographics.