Foreign Trade, FDI, and Capital Flows Study

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    China in Regional Trade Agreements : Competition Provisions
    (World Bank, 2009-06-30) World Bank
    This report is structured in three volumes: competition provisions; environment provisions; and labor mobility provisions. The main messages of this three volumes are as follows: 1) competition laws and policies are increasingly being established at the regional level, as they could be instrumental in supporting the benefits of trade and investment liberalization; 2) China may want to use the opportunity of these negotiations to: (a) further discipline its state-owned enterprises;(b) carefully consider the possible role of antidumping policies; and (c) promote and lock-in domestic reforms aimed at improving its domestic competition policies; 3) with a shift of the development agenda from primarily pursuing growth to achieving a more balanced and sustainable development and taking into account China's high reliance on trade, it may be increasingly in China's interest to pro-actively engage its partners on environmental issues in its regional trade agreement (RTA) negotiations; and 4) while the world economy stands to gain massively from liberalization in the mobility of labor, adverse popular reaction to the economic and social impacts of immigrants has kept progress in enhancing global labor mobility well below progress in trade and capital liberalization.
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    China in Regional Trade Agreements : Labor Mobility Provisions
    (World Bank, 2009-06-30) World Bank
    This report is structured in three volumes: competition provisions; environment provisions; and labor mobility provisions. The main messages of this three volumes are as follows: 1) competition laws and policies are increasingly being established at the regional level, as they could be instrumental in supporting the benefits of trade and investment liberalization; 2) China may want to use the opportunity of these negotiations to: (a) further discipline its state-owned enterprises;(b) carefully consider the possible role of antidumping policies; and (c) promote and lock-in domestic reforms aimed at improving its domestic competition policies; 3) with a shift of the development agenda from primarily pursuing growth to achieving a more balanced and sustainable development and taking into account China's high reliance on trade, it may be increasingly in China's interest to pro-actively engage its partners on environmental issues in its regional trade agreement (RTA) negotiations; and 4) while the world economy stands to gain massively from liberalization in the mobility of labor, adverse popular reaction to the economic and social impacts of immigrants has kept progress in enhancing global labor mobility well below progress in trade and capital liberalization.
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    China in Regional Trade Agreements : Environment Provisions
    (World Bank, 2009-06-30) World Bank
    This report is structured in three volumes: competition provisions; environment provisions; and labor mobility provisions. The main messages of this three volumes are as follows: 1) competition laws and policies are increasingly being established at the regional level, as they could be instrumental in supporting the benefits of trade and investment liberalization; 2) China may want to use the opportunity of these negotiations to: (a) further discipline its state-owned enterprises;(b) carefully consider the possible role of antidumping policies; and (c) promote and lock-in domestic reforms aimed at improving its domestic competition policies; 3) with a shift of the development agenda from primarily pursuing growth to achieving a more balanced and sustainable development and taking into account China's high reliance on trade, it may be increasingly in China's interest to pro-actively engage its partners on environmental issues in its regional trade agreement (RTA) negotiations; and 4) while the world economy stands to gain massively from liberalization in the mobility of labor, adverse popular reaction to the economic and social impacts of immigrants has kept progress in enhancing global labor mobility well below progress in trade and capital liberalization.
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    The Service Revolution in South Asia
    (Washington, DC, 2009-06) World Bank
    The story of Hyderabad, the capital of the Indian state Andhra Pradesh, is truly inspiring for late-comers to development. Within two decades, Andhra Pradesh has been catapulted straight from a poor and largely agricultural economy into a major service center. It has transformed itself from a lagging into a leading region. Fuelled by an increase in service exports of 45 times between 1998 and 2008, the number of information technology companies in Hyderabad increased eight times, and employment increased 20 times. Service-led growth has mushroomed in other parts of India and South Asia as well. Indeed, growth in the services sector has enabled South Asia to grow almost as fast as East Asia in this century, with growth of just under seven percent annually between 2000 and 2007. Growth rates in South Asia and East Asia have converged. The two fastest growing regions in the world, however, have very different growth patterns. While East Asia is a story of growth led by manufacturing, South Asia has thrived on service-led growth. The promise of the services revolution is that countries do not need to wait to get started with rapid development. There is a new boat that development late-comers can take. The globalization of service exports provides alternative opportunities for developing countries to find niches, beyond manufacturing, where they can specialize, scale up and achieve explosive growth, just like the industrializes. The core of the argument is that as the number of goods and services produced and traded across the world expand with globalization, the possibilities for all countries to develop based on their comparative advantage expand. That comparative advantage can just as easily be in services as in manufacturing or indeed agriculture.
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    Liberia - Tapping Nature’s Bounty for the Benefits of All : Diagnostic Trade Integration Study, Volume 1. Main Report
    (Washington, DC, 2008-12) World Bank
    Liberia is a rich country, badly managed. This is a favorite comment of President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf and an accurate one. The bad management is well-known, though perhaps not its duration and depth. Created in 1847, the country is far older than almost all others in sub- Saharan Africa. But for most of this time, it was ruled by an elite descended from African-American settlers who ignored or exploited the indigenous people. The result was growth without development, stark inequality, social tension and the seeds of unrest. The political order was turned upside down in a bloody coup in 1980, but bad management continued. Within ten years the country descended into civil war from which it only emerged in 2003. The 90 percent decline in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is possibly the most extreme economic collapse ever experienced in the world. This study lays out a comprehensive pro poor trade strategy in support of the medium-term growth agenda of Liberia. The new Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) for Liberia recognizes all this. Indeed, this Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS) and the PRS were developed in parallel and with considerable cross-fertilization. A joint workshop was held on the productive sectors in February 2008. The role of this study is therefore to reinforce the message contained in the PRS, deepen the analysis, and offer some practical next steps.
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    Sovereign Wealth Funds in East Asia
    (Washington, DC, 2008-06-30) World Bank
    The massive size, rapid growth, and high-profile investments of Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) in the U.S. and elsewhere in 2007 has attracted the attention of the media, politicians, regulators, and academics over the past year. Some of the SWF investments have been viewed as market stabilizing, for instance the substantial equity investments in large U.S. financial institutions that were recently in financial trouble after the sub-prime mortgage crisis. However, there is great suspicion from many political and academic quarters that SWFs are politically motivated with many SWFs in Asia now at the center of the storm. Although SWFs have been in existence for many decades worldwide, most SWFs in the East Asia and Pacific Region (EAP) are relatively new. The emergence of the SWFs in Asia is largely a by-product of the strong economic development at East Asian countries and the attendant accumulation of foreign exchange reserves, however, there are other types of SWFs in the region. The Governments have taken a concerted strategy to enhance the returns on these excess reserves. The EAP region is an ideal region to take a look at the issues surrounding SWFs since Asia has the full range of funds from long-established funds to brand new funds; from passive portfolio investors to more aggressive strategic investors; from resource-backed funds to foreign reserve-backed funds; and, based in the largest, most highly developed economies to the smallest, poorest economies in Asia. Therefore, the objective of this report is to document the status of Sovereign Wealth Funds in the East Asia Region and to understand the implications of their rapid growth. Many developing countries have recently shifted a higher proportion of their foreign currency earnings from official foreign currency reserves to sovereign wealth funds. Sovereign wealth funds have an estimated $600 billion in assets under management in developing countries, dominated by China ($200 billion held by the Chinese Investment Corporation and $68 billion held by the Central Huijin Investment Company) and Russia ($130 billion held in the Reserve Fund and $33 billion held by the Fund of Future Generations). It should be noted that this amount is small relative to the total level of reserves held by developing countries (estimated at $3.7 trillion at end 2007).
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    China Capital Markets Development Report : China Securities Regulation Commission
    (China Financial Publishing House, 2008-01) Qi, Bin
    The 'China capital markets development report' provides a good overview of the development of China's capital markets and explores future strategies. The report starts by reviewing historical events in the evolution of China's capital markets which have grown from small and unorganized regional markets into a national market today. By summarizing lessons learned during the market evolution and analyzing major gaps between China's capital markets and more mature markets, the report tries to propose a strategic design and vision for China's capital markets development for the next decade and beyond. Since the commencement of economic reform and opening up, China has gone through significant economic and social changes, and the socialist market economic regime has been established and steadily improved. Between 1979 and 2007, China's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been growing above 9 percent annually on average and China has become the fourth largest economy in the World. China's capital markets emerged and developed during the same period. With joint efforts by all relevant parties, China's capital markets have been able to reach a level of development that took many mature markets decades or even a hundred years to achieve. Along the way, the legal and regulatory frameworks, and trading and clearing systems have developed according to international best practice and China's capital markets have been increasingly recognized by international investors. The emergence and development of capital markets has been closely linked to mass production. They are the prerequisite for, and important indicators of, a modern market economy. Capital markets promote the development and improvement of market-driven resource allocation, resulting in the optimization of social resources. As the world financial markets become increasingly global and integrated, competition among capital markets and financial centers around the world is becoming increasingly intensive, leading to a fast-changing landscape in capital markets. The competitiveness and viability of the capital markets have become important components of national competitiveness.
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    Burkina Faso : The Challenge of Export Diversification for a Landlocked Country
    (Washington, DC, 2007-09) World Bank
    The objective of the Diagnostic Trade Integration Study (DTIS) is to build the foundation for accelerated growth by enhancing the integration of its economy into regional and global markets. Burkina Faso is one of the best economic performers in West Africa, yet its integration into the world economy, as measured by its trade and foreign investment performance, is among the lowest. Economic growth has been strong, higher than all other countries in the sub-region. This has been achieved in spite of droughts and cricket invasions, and the turmoil in Cote d'Ivoire, and without significant oil or mining exports. Macroeconomic management has been consistently strong, and inflation low. At the same time, its export to gross domestic product (GDP) ratio is only one-third that of Senegal or Mali, while foreign directs investment inflows are far below the average for sub-Saharan Africa. At a time when globalization is determining the fate of nations, Burkina Faso seems to be on the sidelines and doing fairly well. If the country is to raise economic growth rates to the levels necessary to make major inroads on poverty, and reduce its aid dependence, it will need to improve its performance on exports and foreign investment. Implementation of a weighing program to fight against overloading of merchandise, coordinated along all the corridors.The challenge for Burkina Faso is to step up efforts to consolidate this sound performance in order to accelerate growth and deepen the fight against poverty. These efforts will be deployed on three fronts. The first consists in maintaining macroeconomic stability to improve the international competitiveness of the economy; the second, diversifying exports to expand trade and stimulate growth; and the third, strengthening social sectors and small operators in order to make growth inclusive and to maximize its impact on poverty reduction. This study focuses on the second challenge, taking into account the importance of participation by small operators.
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    Options for Strengthening East African Community's Trade Integration
    (Washington, DC, 2007-09) World Bank
    The treaty for the establishment of the East African Community (EAC) was signed in November 1999 by Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. The treaty, which entered into force in June 2000, aims a comprehensive integration process comprising of trade, economic, and political integration. The ultimate objective is to establish a political federation in 2015 through a progression of trading and economic arrangements (customs union, common market, and monetary union) as well as host of joint projects to develop regional infrastructure, manage regional commons, and produce regional public goods. Given the small size and the low income level of the member countries, aiming for a comprehensive integration is the right strategy, which will enable them to pull their resources together, broaden their markets, harmonize their policies, and enhance their competitiveness collectively to be able to expand their productive capacity and regional and global trade to accelerate growth. Burundi and Rwanda were accepted a new members of the EAC in November 2006. Their membership is expected to be effective in the second half of 2007. This report suggests a list of core priority areas and recommends broad direction of reforms. Its analysis and recommendations will serve as a useful contribution to the ongoing negotiations among the member states for an EAC common market as well as to efforts to harmonize programs between Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), South African Development Community (SADC), and EAC.
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    The Gambia - From Entrepot to Exporter and Eco-tourism : Diagnostic Trade Integration Study for the Integrated Framework for Trade-related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries
    (Washington, DC, 2007-07) World Bank
    For decades, Gambia has served as a regional entrepot, using the river as a transportation link to the hinterland. Relatively low import taxes, well-functioning port and customs services, and limited administrative barriers reinforced Gambia's position as a trading center. About 80 percent of Gambian merchandise exports consist of re-exports to the sub-region goods imported into Gambia are transported unofficially into Senegal and beyond. Gambian economy and especially its public finances are highly dependent on this trade because imported goods destined for re-export pay the normal import duties. Recently, however, re-exports have declined due to a combination of tensions with Senegal, harmonization of import and sales taxes in the region, and improved port and customs operations in Senegal and other neighboring countries. The current re-export trade is unlikely to be sustainable, calling for a strategy to build growth on a more secure foundation. The report identifies directions for establishing a more sustainable foundation for the country's position as a gateway to the region by improving the transport system and reinforcing its efficient trade facilitation services, while recognizing the limited potential for growth. The study makes detailed recommendations on strengthening and diversifying domestic production of goods and services in the areas of tourism, groundnuts, other agriculture, and fishing, by improving the business climate as well as implementing sector-specific reforms.