Other Agriculture Study

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Eastern Africa - A study of the Regional Maize Market and Marketing Costs

2009-12-31, World Bank

Maize is the most important staple food in the Eastern Africa region and the most widely traded agricultural commodity. Therefore, the performance of grain markets has a significant impact on people's welfare, particularly the poor, and is critical to inducing pro-poor growth in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, i.e. the countries under review in this report. Marketing costs at the borders would need to be reduced but even more attention should be paid to domestic marketing costs. Policy makers in East Africa should not be misled that encouraging greater regional trade is solely a diplomatic matter. Instead, concerted public investments and policy actions at local, national, and regional levels are required. Reduced marketing costs would allow a reduction in input prices and thus production costs. This report aims to examine, identify, and quantify the factors behind the marketing costs for maize in East African countries. While a number of studies have recognized major barriers to trade in the region, few have actually quantified their relative importance or the magnitudes of these constraints on grain trade. Since much past research has been inconclusive, a key focus of this report is to identify how different barriers contribute to marketing costs within countries and across borders. It also aims to analyze whether a reduction in cross-border trade costs without a simultaneous reduction in domestic costs would be sufficient for greater regional integration in East Africa.

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Not Yet Up to Standard: The Legacy of Two Decades of Private, Governmental, and Donor Effects to Promote Ugandan Horticultural Exports

2009-07, Rios, Luz Diaz, Jaffee, Steven, Henson, Spencer, Mugisha, Johnny

The relative prosperity enjoyed by Uganda during the 1960s, based largely on the traditional exports of coffee, tea, cotton, and tobacco, was eroded by a devastating civil war over the period 1971 to 1985. The paper is based upon interviews with selected respondents, including government authorities, exporting companies, donors, and practitioner organizations, carried out in 2007 and 2008. The paper is divided into four sections. Section one provides a brief historical perspective on the emergence of the Ugandan fruit and vegetable export industry and examines the role played by different government and donor initiatives in the initial shaping of the sector, between the late 1980s and late 1990s. Section two highlights the strategic commercial approaches adopted by Ugandan exporting companies and farmers during the 2000s in response to past performance and in the face of evolving regulatory and market requirements, especially in the European Union. Section three examines the rationale for, means of support of, and apparent efficacy of a range of recent programs seeking to improve or sustain the competitiveness of Uganda's fruit and vegetable exports via improved compliance with regulatory or private standards. Lessons are drawn from this experience. Section four provides a brief set of general conclusions.

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Reforming Fisheries and Aquaculture for Global Benefits : Evaluation Report

2009-03, Williams, Meryl J., Tenreiro de Almeida, Joaquim, Wilson, W. Mark D.

The World Bank had commissioned an independent team to evaluate and assess the future role of PROFISH, the Global Program on Fisheries. The evaluation team found that PROFISH, since its inception in 2005, had made excellent progress in raising World Bank, bilateral donor and client country awareness of fisheries development needs, contributed fisheries and aquaculture content to global development products and assisted World Bank country and regional operations. The evaluation team concluded that fisheries can be reformed to achieve multiple objectives by (1) focusing on governance and institutions, (2) including fisheries in the mainstream development agendas and in global themes such as food security and climate change, and (3) applying the key operational tools of problem diagnosis, sequenced interventions and implementation experience and learning.

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Rethinking Forest Partnerships and Benefit Sharing : Insights on Factors and Context that Make Collaborative Arrangements Work for Communities and Landowners

2009-01, World Bank

Forest-sector collaborative arrangements come in many forms. The local partner may be a community, an association, or a set of individual landholders. The outside partner may be a private organization or a government. The interest of the local partner may be production of income from the forest, security of access to land, increased labor or small business opportunities, protection of traditionally valued resources, or other values. The interest of the outside partner may be similarly varied, from securing access to forest products, to obtaining the cooperation of the local community in the partner's resource use, to securing a source of labor, to alleviation of rural poverty, to production of environmental services and management of risks. Establishing arrangements that effectively deliver sustainable forest management and benefit local communities is a challenge because of the range of participants, objectives, and scales of partnerships and benefit-sharing arrangements. This study uses an evidence-based approach to provide insights into developing and maintaining collaborative arrangements in the forest sector. It aims to inform discussions and approaches to forest partnership and benefit-sharing arrangements. It also offers guidance on how to implement key factors that influence contract-based forest partnerships and benefit-sharing arrangements.

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Jamaica : Toward a Strategy for Financial Weather Risk Management in Agriculture

2009-11, World Bank

This report forms part of the technical assistance provided by the World Bank under the Non-lending Technical Assistance Program for the Caribbean 'market-based agriculture risk management in the Caribbean.' The program is largely financed by the European Union All Agriculture Commodities Program (AACP) Initiative and contributions from the International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD) and the World Bank. This document provides technical input for designing a national strategy for addressing the financial weather risks facing the agricultural sector of Jamaica. As such, it identifies the various options from current available financial risk transfer instruments for addressing crop weather risks for small farmers (livestock risks are not directly addressed in this report) and identifies the public investments needed for supporting market development of the agricultural insurance market. The report is structured in five sections to facilitate its presentation. The first two sections present a snapshot of the Jamaican economy and agricultural sector, and the current situation of agricultural insurance; third section addresses a set of key issues for designing a government strategy for agricultural financial weather risk management; fourth section contains the elements of public policy and investments to support market development for agricultural insurance, and various illustrations of how to structure financial weather risk management instruments for the sector. The report concludes with a short section containing final remarks and recommendations.

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Technical Assistance to the Agriculture Development Task Force in Afghanistan

2009-05, World Bank

This report summarizes the main outputs of the technical assistance provided which was concentrated in three areas: (1) development of MAIL's strategic priorities and investments for the immediate future/short term, medium term and longer term; (2) advising Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock (MAIL) regarding the design of an appropriate structure of the Ministry and definition of corresponding responsibilities; (3) analytical policy advice regarding urgent issues that the Ministry of Agriculture (MAIL) has to deal with on a daily basis, but where it lacks the capacity to analyze alternative policy strategies and solutions. The technical assistance work regarding urgent policy issues has focused on three main areas: (1) organization and management of public food grain stocks; (2) purchasing and distribution of improved wheat seed; and (3) leasing of government-owned land to private entities. Finally, and outside the area of policy support, the Bank may consider stepping up its efforts to help MAIL to further develop/restore Afghanistan's agricultural production base and in this way help improving the livelihoods of poor rural people. More specifically the Bank may consider exploring the Government's interest in a project aimed at increasing agricultural incomes through improvements in the quality and reliability of input delivery systems and wider adoption of improved production technologies, including technologies that increase the efficiency of on-farm water management.

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Mission Note Bangladesh, March 15-31, 2009

2009-03, World Bank

The Government of Bangladesh has requested the World Bank to provide further assistance to the livestock and dairy sectors. During a mission of the Sector Manager of Agriculture and Rural Development (ARD) of the South Asia region of the World Bank to Bangladesh in November 2008, the Secretary of the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries (MOFL) of the former Caretaker Government of Bangladesh (BD) requested the Sector Manager for assistance to the development of the dairy and fisheries subsectors to support the livelihoods of the rural people and contribute to the economic growth of the country. The secretary of the MOFL also reminded the Bank of its proposal for an investment request for dairy development to the Bank sent in 2007. In response, the Bank agreed to carry out a technical mission to review the current state of the livestock sector (with special focus on the dairy sub-sector) and the fisheries sector, particularly inland fishery production (including freshwater capture and freshwater aquaculture). The mission reviewed policy, technical and administrative aspects in order to identify key bottlenecks and assess the scope for Bank-supported further development of the sectors. This request of the Government is consistent with the emphasis in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Plan (PRSP) on further development of the livestock and fisheries sectors which together account for 7 percent of total Gross Domestic Product, or GDP (3 percent livestock, 4 percent fisheries) and 33 percent of agricultural GDP).

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Mongolia : Livestock Sector Study

2009-09-15, World Bank

The purpose of this synthesis report is to try and draw together recent work on the sector to understand in greater detail what is driving the sector, and how these drivers and trends may play out in the future and what options are available in response. This is not a strategy for the sector, but rather an attempt to provide some clarity to the development of the sector as a basis for stimulating discussion to inform strategy and specifically, to inform government policy and expenditure in the sector. The report draws upon five working papers (WPs) that were commissioned by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture in 2006 and 2007 . These papers tried to fill gaps in current knowledge of drivers in the sector rather than provide a comprehensive study of the sector, and their findings have been supplemented by other work in the sector.

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Assessment of Innovative Approaches to Flood Risk Management and Financing in Agriculture : The Thailand Case Study

2009-05, World Bank

The World Bank recently conducted research and concept-testing activities to investigate the expansion of the index approach from drought to flood. The main objective was to assess prerequisite conditions, as well as practical and efficient methods, to conceptualize and potentially implement index-based insurance for agricultural flood losses. In addition, the work assessed how modern technologies such as flood modeling and remote sensing-which are widely used to support flood risk mapping, and flood detection, warning and control-could be harnessed to support the design of such flood insurance programs for rural clients. This paper summarizes the findings from work carried out from September 2005 to April 2008 in the Muang Petchaboon District of the Petchaboon province in Thailand. The next section illustrates the importance of flood risk in agriculture and challenges in providing flood insurance. The following section describes the flood index insurance concept and methodology that were tested during the feasibility study. Section four highlights the findings from the Petchaboon province of Thailand, and the final section synthesizes lessons learned and recommends areas for future research and applications. Finally, it is important to recognize that the process of quantifying weather risk, and of creating an operational system which combines risk and asset information, have much broader applications than simply for index-based weather insurance or other risk transfer solutions.

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Lao People's Democratic Republic - Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures : Enhancing Trade, Food Safety, and Agricultural Health

2009-01-01, World Bank

Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) is making effort to integrate itself into the regional and international economy. It is seeking membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO); participating in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN); the ASEAN free trade agreement (AFTA), and the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS); and working to attract foreign investment and to expand its foreign trade. In recent years Lao PDR has been successful in rapidly expanding its export and import of agricultural food, and forestry products. Most trade is with neighboring China, Thailand, and Vietnam. Improved infrastructure in the GMS and availability of good land in Lao PDR offers potential for further growth of agricultural production and exports. Commercialization of agriculture will lead to further import of seed, planting material, breeding stock, pesticides, veterinary drugs, fertilizer, and animal seed. Further increases in income and changes in consumer demand will lead to greater imports of consumer goods. Increased foreign trade raises exposure to risks of also importing animal and plant pests and diseases, and foods that are unsuitable for consumption. Import of seeds, planting material, breeding stock, pesticides, and veterinary drugs pose particularly increased risks. Lao PDR needs in general to strengthen protection against an influx of pests and diseases, and to assure safety of food, that is, to strengthen sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures.