Other Agriculture Study

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  • Publication
    The Practice of Responsible Investment Principles in Larger-Scale Agricultural Investments : Implications for Corporate Performance and Impact on Local Communities
    (Washington, DC, 2014-04) World Bank
    This report presents findings from a field-based survey on the conduct of agricultural operations at 39 large-scale, mature agribusiness investments in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. The objective of the report is to provide first-hand, practical knowledge of the approach, behavior, and experience of these investments, their relationships with surrounding communities and the consequent positive and/or negative outcomes for these communities, host countries, other stakeholders, and the investors themselves. More than 550 community stakeholders were interviewed about the impacts the investments had on those they represented. These impressions and ideas of local communities enriched this study and provided unique insights into what factors are at play, and their impact on those most directly affected by outside investments. The lessons learned and good practices identified are intended to inform the work of government bodies, investors, non-governmental organizations, development agencies, and other institutions that promote responsible investment in agriculture.
  • Publication
    Agribusiness Indicators : Kenya
    (Washington, DC, 2013-01) World Bank
    The importance of agriculture in the economies of sub-Saharan African countries cannot be overemphasized. With agriculture accounting for about 65 percent of the region's employment and 75 percent of its domestic trade, significant progress in reducing hunger and poverty across the region depends on the development and transformation of the agricultural sector. Transforming agriculture from largely a subsistence enterprise to a profitable commercial venture is the prerequisite and driving force for accelerated development and sustainable economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa. The rationale behind the development of agribusiness indicators (ABIs) is to construct indicators for specific factors to support successful, effective private sector involvement in agriculture. The indicators can be used to benchmark and monitor performance in the agricultural sector over time and across countries. The resulting information can provoke knowledge flows and meaningful dialogue among policy makers, government officials, donors, private sector actors, as well as other stakeholders in the agricultural sector. This study is predicated on the fact that agriculture is the backbone of the economies of most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Kenya. The ultimate aim is to stimulate debate and dialogue among policy makers in specific African countries to engender change and reform in areas where investment is needed to leverage agribusiness and economic development. This study relied heavily on an extensive secondary data collection and literature review, supplemented by informal surveys to solicit information from a broad spectrum of stakeholders and actors in Kenya's agricultural sector. The review and interviews focused on the factors that the agribusiness indicators team determined to be the most critical for agribusiness development across sub-Saharan Africa, based on extensive scoping missions in three pilot countries (Ghana, Ethiopia, and Mozambique). This report is organized into following chapters: chapter one gives introduction; chapter two presents ABI methodology; chapter three presents findings on the success factors and indicators; and chapter four gives concluding remarks.
  • Publication
    El Salvador Country Land Assessment
    (Washington, DC, 2012-06) World Bank
    This study assesses the alignment of land use, land tenure, and land market outcomes in El Salvador with public policy aspirations in recent decades for efficient, inclusive, and environmentally sustainable development in both urban and rural spaces. In doing so the study indirectly gauges the effectiveness of land sector institutions in facilitating such developmental outcomes in agricultural production, urbanization, and forest management. Chapter 1 briefly reviews some of the prominent struggles over land in El Salvador and outlines the salient features of today's institutional framework for land governance. Chapter 2 asks the question, "How effective have public policy interventions, including the Agrarian Reform, been in reducing rural inequality and tenure insecurity?". Chapter 3 explores what has happened to the lands transferred to Agrarian Reform cooperatives under the last iterations of the Agrarian Reform. Chapter 4 asks the question, "How has land governance in El Salvador responded to the challenges of urban land supply in the last decade?". In Chapter 5 the extent to which urban spatial expansion in El Salvador has been occurring in an inclusive way is explored. Chapter 6 presents the findings of the original analyses of land use in relation to deforestation. Chapter 7 analyzes available land market data in three Departments, Ahuachapan, Santa Ana, and Sonsonate, to identify trends and land use dynamism in the first decade of this century. Chapter 8 looks at the study's empirical findings from a more integrated, cross-sectoral perspective so that their implications for public policy are better understood. The final Chapter of the study presents policy options for consideration by the Government of El Salvador and the country's civil society organizations in order to address the key challenges related to land tenure, land use, and territorial planning.
  • Publication
    Agribusiness Indicators : Ghana
    (Washington, DC, 2012-04) World Bank
    Agriculture plays an important role in the economies of most countries in Africa. However, few African countries have been able to capitalize on the sector's considerable potential to contribute to economic development through commercialization. Few have created an enabling environment for agricultural finance in which lenders and other agents are encouraged to develop innovative financial products that are well tailored to meet the needs of local producers. Few African countries have purposefully set out to encourage the use of modern farm machinery. Some, however, have invested in road infrastructure and transport facilities to reduce transaction costs and improve producers' access to markets. The countries that have undertaken initiatives to expand producers' access to agricultural technologies such as certified or hybrid seeds and fertilizers have generally been the most effective at increasing agricultural productivity. The research described in this volume used a set of agribusiness indicators to collect data that capture the performance of the agriculture sector in the Republic of Ghana, using a list of preliminary indicators covering the following areas: (i) access to and availability of certified seed; (ii) availability of and access to fertilizer; (iii) access to farm machinery, particularly tractor hire services for land preparation; (iv) access to agricultural and agro-enterprise finance; (v) cost and efficiency of transport; (vi) measures of policy certainty and the orientation of the enabling environment as perceived by the private sector; and (vii) various policy, trade, and fiscal measures. Ghana was the first country in which these indicators were tested for ease and consistency. The indicators were then finalized and used for data collection in two other African countries (Ethiopia and Mozambique).
  • Publication
    Romania - Functional Review : Agriculture and Rural Development Administration
    (Washington, DC, 2010-10-15) World Bank
    This report presents the outcomes of the functional review of Romania's agricultural administration. Given the sectoral and territorial relevance of its regulatory domain, Romania s Agricultural and Rural Development Administration is a key administrative body undergoing this Functional Review. The review will examine whether the policy goals and objectives of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MADR) and its agencies are clearly defined in measurable and achievable terms; whether the management systems, policies, staffing, and internal organizational structure are appropriate to meet objectives; and whether and to what extent factors external to the institutions impede the ability to meet objectives fully. The review analyzes factors promoting and/or limiting the efficiency and effectiveness of the agricultural and rural policy delivery in Romania. It aims at providing practical recommendations on: enhanced strategic coordination of policies and programs in the agricultural and rural policy domain; improved management and implementation of CAP support measures, to decrease risk of delayed payments to beneficiaries and low, ineffective and inefficient absorption of EU funds; realizing the full potential of MADR and its agencies through, for instance, better delineation of functions and better delegation of responsibilities within and among the relevant institutions; and approaches to improving the quality of public service delivery to beneficiaries of the Government's agricultural and rural programs. The review focuses on assessing both the current situation and future needs. It is broadly based on the following thematic areas: strategic framework, organizational structure and systems, budget and financial management, human resource management.
  • Publication
    Global Strategy to Improve Agricultural and Rural Statistics
    (Washington, DC, 2010-09) World Bank
    Policy makers and development practitioners who are responsible for developing investment strategies to promote economic growth find many challenges in the changing face of agriculture in the twenty-first century. In addition to its productive role of providing food, clothing, fuel, and housing for a growing world population, agriculture assumes other roles, the importance of which has more recently been recognized. In addition to its essential role in food security, agricultural development is now seen as a vital and high-impact source of poverty reduction. It is also seen as a source of environmental problems and a contributor to global warming, water scarcity and pollution, and land degradation. At the same time its potential as a source of environmental services needs to be defined, monitored, and evaluated. Many of the issues facing the sector transcend national boundaries. The Global Strategy is the result of an extensive consultation process with national and international statistical organizations as well as with agriculture ministries and other governmental institutions represented in Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) governing bodies. Considerable input came from the United Nations statistical commission friends of chair working group and the 2009 meetings of the International Statistical Institute in Maputo and Durban. Other collaboration involved the FAO Biannual conference and discussions at the regional commissions on agricultural statistics attended by national directors of agricultural statistics, the World Bank peer review process, and the development of a Wikipedia web page to collect inputs from the statistical community. The purpose of the global strategy is to provide a framework for national and international statistical systems that enables them to produce and to apply the basic data and information needed to guide decision making in the twenty-first century. This paper presents the overall strategy. It provides a ground-breaking effort to improve agricultural statistics that has implications for other sectors in the national statistical system. While it took many years for agriculture statistics to deteriorate to their current state, the implementation of the strategy provides a fresh start.
  • Publication
    Uruguay : Family Agriculture Development
    (Washington, DC, 2010-06) World Bank
    The bank has a long relationship with Uruguay's agricultural sector, expanding over a period of more than 60 years in which several projects and various analytical and advisory assistance initiatives have been implemented. The main purposes of the present report are: a) to analyze the main characteristics of family agriculture as well as its development potential and constraints; b) to examine Uruguay's current agricultural policy and institutional framework; c) present a set of measures aimed at reducing vulnerabilities and increasing development opportunities for family producers; and d) contribute to Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishery's (MGAP's) preparation of an agricultural and rural development plan 2010-15, by presenting a set of policy recommendations and measures to support an economic and environmentally sustainable family agriculture development within the Government's overall strategy to promote more equitable rural development. Uruguay's agricultural and food sector has successfully mastered past crises and retained its role as an important sector of the national economy, which saw its contribution to Gross Domestic product (GDP) increased from 6.0 percent during the economic crisis in 2000-2001 to 9.1 percent of national GDP, or 13.7 percent including agro-food processing, in 2008.
  • Publication
    Farm Mechanization : A New Challenge for Agriculture in Low and Middle Income Countries of Europe and Central Asia
    (Washington, DC, 2010-01) World Bank
    This report shows that trends in farm mechanization are attributable to differing approaches to reform and differing agricultural resource endowments. The level of reform determines the pattern and extent to which labor and capital change, with land reform and commodity market liberalization as the underlying forces for change. These reforms substantially raise the incentives to invest as a means to increase productivity and incomes. In countries where this initial threshold of reform has not been attained agricultural incomes grow more slowly and there is less incentive to invest. Where the incentives to invest are high a second round of reform is necessary to facilitate investment reforms which deepen and strengthen financial markets and improve the business environment.
  • Publication
    Lao People's Democratic Republic : Policy, Market and Agriculture Transition in the Northern Uplands
    (Washington, DC, 2008-05) World Bank
    This report presents policy, market, and agriculture transition in the Northern Uplands of Lao People's Democratic Republic aims to contribute to such a dialogue by providing: (a) a policy-relevant typology of the structural characteristics and transition patterns of the principal small-holder agriculture systems in the Northern Uplands; and (b) recommendations to strengthen Government's facilitation of a more sustainable and equitable upland transition. The report also provides input into the ongoing dialogue under the umbrella of the joint Government-donor working group on uplands. Chapter two sets out a typology of traditional and emerging agriculture production systems in the Northern Uplands as a starting point of the report. Chapter three summarizes the Government's upland and agriculture development-related policy framework. Chapter four provides an overview of the market impacts currently at work in the Northern Uplands. Chapter five discusses the transition dynamics and pathways of individual agricultural production systems and outcomes. It also includes some considerations on the winners and losers in the upland transition and on the sustainability within the emerging production patterns. Chapter six concludes with recommended options for policy adjustments and support interventions to help facilitate the transition process.
  • Publication
    The Cost of Land Degradation in Ethiopia : A Review of Past Studies
    (Washington, DC, 2007-04) World Bank
    This paper reviews past studies on the costs of land degradation in Ethiopia, with a view to drawing implications for policies, programs, and future research on sustainable land management (SLM). Given the wide range of methods and assumptions used in the studies, their findings concerning annual costs of land degradation relative to agricultural gross domestic product (AGDP) are of remarkably similar magnitude. The minimum estimated annual costs of land degradation in Ethiopia range from 2 to 3 percent of AGDP. This estimate does not take into account downstream effects such as flooding, suggesting that actual total costs are possibly much higher than the 2-3 percent range. A onetime occurrence of a 2-3 percent reduction in AGDP might be manageable, but the cumulative losses to land degradation over time are very serious for an agriculturally based economy. Such cumulative losses represent a significant drag on rural growth and poverty reduction and jeopardize long-term, sustainable development.