Items in this collection
PublicationRepublic of India : Accelerating Agricultural Productivity Growth(Washington, DC, 2014-05-21) World BankIn the past 50 years, Indian agriculture has undergone a major transformation, from dependence on food aid to becoming a consistent net food exporter. The gradual reforms in the agricultural sector (following the broader macro-reforms of the early 1990s) spurred some unprecedented innovations and changes in the food sector driven by private investment. These impressive achievements must now be viewed in light of the policy and investment imperatives that lie ahead. Agricultural growth has improved in recent years (averaging about 3.5 percent since 2004-05), but at a long-term trend rate of growth of 3 percent, agriculture has underperformed relative to its potential. The pockets of post-reform dynamism that have emerged evidently have not reached a sufficiently large scale to influence the sector's performance. For the vast population that still derives a living directly or indirectly from agriculture, achieving "faster, more inclusive, and sustainable growth', the objectives at the heart of the Twelfth five year plan, depends critically on simultaneous efforts to improve agriculture's performance and develop new sources of employment for the disproportionately large share of the labor force still on the farm. The scope of this study is broad in the sense that it marshals considerable empirical evidence and analyses to address those issues. Yet the scope is restricted in the sense that the study does not address all of the issues. A wealth of knowledge exists (and continuing analytical work proceeds) on other major strategic issues, water and irrigation management, food grain management, and public expenditures on agriculture, for example, and the findings of this study must be seen in that context. The lack of sufficient quality data, and often the lack of access to such data, also prevents some issues from being explored in greater depth. Finally, some important issues require more focused and dedicated analysis, such as food safety and quality standards, agricultural trade, and food price increases. This relationship between longer-term strategic issues and contemporary concerns, such as water resource management and food prices, are highlighted in this study through the prism of productivity, but they too require further analysis to fully address the underlying issues. PublicationThe Practice of Responsible Investment Principles in Larger-Scale Agricultural Investments : Implications for Corporate Performance and Impact on Local Communities(Washington, DC, 2014-04) World BankThis report presents findings from a field-based survey on the conduct of agricultural operations at 39 large-scale, mature agribusiness investments in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. The objective of the report is to provide first-hand, practical knowledge of the approach, behavior, and experience of these investments, their relationships with surrounding communities and the consequent positive and/or negative outcomes for these communities, host countries, other stakeholders, and the investors themselves. More than 550 community stakeholders were interviewed about the impacts the investments had on those they represented. These impressions and ideas of local communities enriched this study and provided unique insights into what factors are at play, and their impact on those most directly affected by outside investments. The lessons learned and good practices identified are intended to inform the work of government bodies, investors, non-governmental organizations, development agencies, and other institutions that promote responsible investment in agriculture. PublicationMacedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of : Analysis of the Agricultural Support Programs(Washington, DC, 2013-10) World BankThe report is structured to allow readers familiar with Macedonia s agriculture sector to quickly grasp the essentials needed to improve the sector, as well as to inform a general audience on how to address the challenges of a modern European Union (EU)-aspiring state. Chapter two provides an in-depth analysis of the sectoral background, illustrating the main characteristics and challenges of Macedonia s agriculture sector. The illustration takes an integrated approach to the sector, covering a vast range of inter-related topics including the prominence of the sector not only in terms of its economic and social contribution but also its implications for trade, the urban-rural poverty gap and shared prosperity, farm structure, climate adaptation, and capacity building. Chapter three draws on lessons from the European Union (EU) and provides a framework to analyze Macedonia s agricultural support programs. Further, the chapter provides a primer on the EU s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and its measures to support agriculture. Chapter four presents concise empirical evidence of the coverage and institutional capacity of the agricultural programs in Macedonia under both pillar one and pillar two measures. Chapter five then builds on the primary diagnostic set out in the previous chapters and critically examines the alignment of Macedonia s agricultural programs with the government s stated objectives of poverty reduction, competitiveness, and sustainable development. The results are at best mixed, suggesting substantial pathways for scaling up and exploiting untapped opportunities. Finally, chapter six synthesizes the overall evidence and presents policy implications and recommendations. PublicationEl Salvador Country Land Assessment(Washington, DC, 2012-06) World BankThis study assesses the alignment of land use, land tenure, and land market outcomes in El Salvador with public policy aspirations in recent decades for efficient, inclusive, and environmentally sustainable development in both urban and rural spaces. In doing so the study indirectly gauges the effectiveness of land sector institutions in facilitating such developmental outcomes in agricultural production, urbanization, and forest management. Chapter 1 briefly reviews some of the prominent struggles over land in El Salvador and outlines the salient features of today's institutional framework for land governance. Chapter 2 asks the question, "How effective have public policy interventions, including the Agrarian Reform, been in reducing rural inequality and tenure insecurity?". Chapter 3 explores what has happened to the lands transferred to Agrarian Reform cooperatives under the last iterations of the Agrarian Reform. Chapter 4 asks the question, "How has land governance in El Salvador responded to the challenges of urban land supply in the last decade?". In Chapter 5 the extent to which urban spatial expansion in El Salvador has been occurring in an inclusive way is explored. Chapter 6 presents the findings of the original analyses of land use in relation to deforestation. Chapter 7 analyzes available land market data in three Departments, Ahuachapan, Santa Ana, and Sonsonate, to identify trends and land use dynamism in the first decade of this century. Chapter 8 looks at the study's empirical findings from a more integrated, cross-sectoral perspective so that their implications for public policy are better understood. The final Chapter of the study presents policy options for consideration by the Government of El Salvador and the country's civil society organizations in order to address the key challenges related to land tenure, land use, and territorial planning. PublicationMongolia : Improving Feed and Fodder Supply for Dzud Management(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-06) Rasmussen, Deborah; Dorlig, ShombodonThe paper reports on improving feed and fodder supply for the dzud management in Mongolia study, and aims to identify policy options that could improve the effectiveness and efficiency of dzud emergency management and response. It includes an assessment of the appropriate roles for the private and public sectors, identification of issues, and capacity building requirements. The study will support a policy dialogue and could provide the foundation for a longer-term pilot project in feed and fodder production, storage, and distribution, as part a coherent and effective emergency strategy. PublicationUruguay : Family Agriculture Development(Washington, DC, 2010-06) World BankThe bank has a long relationship with Uruguay's agricultural sector, expanding over a period of more than 60 years in which several projects and various analytical and advisory assistance initiatives have been implemented. The main purposes of the present report are: a) to analyze the main characteristics of family agriculture as well as its development potential and constraints; b) to examine Uruguay's current agricultural policy and institutional framework; c) present a set of measures aimed at reducing vulnerabilities and increasing development opportunities for family producers; and d) contribute to Ministry of Livestock, Agriculture and Fishery's (MGAP's) preparation of an agricultural and rural development plan 2010-15, by presenting a set of policy recommendations and measures to support an economic and environmentally sustainable family agriculture development within the Government's overall strategy to promote more equitable rural development. Uruguay's agricultural and food sector has successfully mastered past crises and retained its role as an important sector of the national economy, which saw its contribution to Gross Domestic product (GDP) increased from 6.0 percent during the economic crisis in 2000-2001 to 9.1 percent of national GDP, or 13.7 percent including agro-food processing, in 2008. PublicationThe Political Economy of Natural Resource Use : Lessons for Fisheries Reform(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-04-01) Leal, Donald R.; Leal, Donald R.The release of 'Sunken billions: The economic justification for fisheries reform' has drawn renewed attention to the enormous loss of wealth suffered in fisheries each year due to weak fisheries governance and the need for fundamental fisheries reform. Such reform calls for addressing the issues plaguing the world's fisheries, such as persistent overfishing and fleet overcapitalization, and addressing the political economy challenges of developing country-specific pathways of reform. Despite growing evidence of success in selected fisheries, less than two percent of the world's fisheries have actually undergone effective reform because of these challenges. At the same time, it is estimated that the world's fisheries could generate at least fifty billion US dollars per annum and the economic benefits generated could be much higher if management systems were established to enable investment in growing this important economic sector in a sustainable manner. The potential pay-off from economic fisheries reform is not only globally significant for the sector, it is crucial for enhancing economic growth and alleviating poverty in developing countries with significant fisheries assets. This report seeks to move this debate forward by discussing key lessons drawn from reform experience in the wider natural resource sector that might inform successful reform in fisheries. PublicationReforming Fisheries and Aquaculture for Global Benefits : Evaluation Report(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-03) Williams, Meryl J.; Tenreiro de Almeida, Joaquim; Wilson, W. Mark D.The World Bank had commissioned an independent team to evaluate and assess the future role of PROFISH, the Global Program on Fisheries. The evaluation team found that PROFISH, since its inception in 2005, had made excellent progress in raising World Bank, bilateral donor and client country awareness of fisheries development needs, contributed fisheries and aquaculture content to global development products and assisted World Bank country and regional operations. The evaluation team concluded that fisheries can be reformed to achieve multiple objectives by (1) focusing on governance and institutions, (2) including fisheries in the mainstream development agendas and in global themes such as food security and climate change, and (3) applying the key operational tools of problem diagnosis, sequenced interventions and implementation experience and learning. PublicationLao People's Democratic Republic : Policy, Market and Agriculture Transition in the Northern Uplands(Washington, DC, 2008-05) World BankThis report presents policy, market, and agriculture transition in the Northern Uplands of Lao People's Democratic Republic aims to contribute to such a dialogue by providing: (a) a policy-relevant typology of the structural characteristics and transition patterns of the principal small-holder agriculture systems in the Northern Uplands; and (b) recommendations to strengthen Government's facilitation of a more sustainable and equitable upland transition. The report also provides input into the ongoing dialogue under the umbrella of the joint Government-donor working group on uplands. Chapter two sets out a typology of traditional and emerging agriculture production systems in the Northern Uplands as a starting point of the report. Chapter three summarizes the Government's upland and agriculture development-related policy framework. Chapter four provides an overview of the market impacts currently at work in the Northern Uplands. Chapter five discusses the transition dynamics and pathways of individual agricultural production systems and outcomes. It also includes some considerations on the winners and losers in the upland transition and on the sustainability within the emerging production patterns. Chapter six concludes with recommended options for policy adjustments and support interventions to help facilitate the transition process. PublicationCape Verde : Fisheries Sector Strategy Assessment(Washington, DC, 2008-02) World BankThis report is the result of a technical and economic assessment of the fisheries sector in Cape Verde. While originally focusing particularly on the long-term development and governance strategy of the sector, the authors, faced with the increasingly apparent need for fundamental restructuring of the sector, redirected their attention to what has become an assessment of how to create a viable fishing sector that can effectively reach realistic stakeholder objectives. The draft report was discussed with representatives of the public and private sectors in Cape Verde September 19 and 20, 2007. The findings and recommendations of the workshop have been summarized in separate textboxes in the report; the complete findings have been attached as annex C. This report suggests that a strategy supporting a combination of short-term actions is needed to create a sector - using gradually decreasing public and donor funding - that would provide: a) fishermen and other stakeholders a long-term sustainable source of raw material, b) equitable income growth and employment prospects, and c) provide the country with a dependable source of protein for human consumption.