Other Agriculture Study

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  • Publication
    Agriculture in Nicaragua: Performance, Challenges, and Options
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-11) Piccioni, Norman Bentley
    This work summarizes background papers prepared for the World Bank Group with significant input from government counterparts and other development partners. It takes stock of major recent developments and argues that a lot has been achieved in the last decade in terms of production of commodities for export and food consumption, with favorable impact on rural poverty reduction. It also argues that the two factors driving the recent agricultural performance, namely favorable international prices and expansion of the agricultural frontier, have reached their limits. So while trade policies are broadly on target, much can be done by focusing on the productivity of small family agriculture and improving competitiveness by reducing transaction costs (logistics) affecting small, medium, and large commercial farms. In the short to medium term, the household income of the rural poor will continue to depend largely on agriculture. Thus interventions will need to take into account the heterogeneity of smallholder agriculture while simultaneously increasing its resilience to climate risks through climate-smart agriculture.
  • Publication
    Republic of India : Accelerating Agricultural Productivity Growth
    (Washington, DC, 2014-05-21) World Bank
    In the past 50 years, Indian agriculture has undergone a major transformation, from dependence on food aid to becoming a consistent net food exporter. The gradual reforms in the agricultural sector (following the broader macro-reforms of the early 1990s) spurred some unprecedented innovations and changes in the food sector driven by private investment. These impressive achievements must now be viewed in light of the policy and investment imperatives that lie ahead. Agricultural growth has improved in recent years (averaging about 3.5 percent since 2004-05), but at a long-term trend rate of growth of 3 percent, agriculture has underperformed relative to its potential. The pockets of post-reform dynamism that have emerged evidently have not reached a sufficiently large scale to influence the sector's performance. For the vast population that still derives a living directly or indirectly from agriculture, achieving "faster, more inclusive, and sustainable growth', the objectives at the heart of the Twelfth five year plan, depends critically on simultaneous efforts to improve agriculture's performance and develop new sources of employment for the disproportionately large share of the labor force still on the farm. The scope of this study is broad in the sense that it marshals considerable empirical evidence and analyses to address those issues. Yet the scope is restricted in the sense that the study does not address all of the issues. A wealth of knowledge exists (and continuing analytical work proceeds) on other major strategic issues, water and irrigation management, food grain management, and public expenditures on agriculture, for example, and the findings of this study must be seen in that context. The lack of sufficient quality data, and often the lack of access to such data, also prevents some issues from being explored in greater depth. Finally, some important issues require more focused and dedicated analysis, such as food safety and quality standards, agricultural trade, and food price increases. This relationship between longer-term strategic issues and contemporary concerns, such as water resource management and food prices, are highlighted in this study through the prism of productivity, but they too require further analysis to fully address the underlying issues.
  • Publication
    Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of : Analysis of the Agricultural Support Programs
    (Washington, DC, 2013-10) World Bank
    The report is structured to allow readers familiar with Macedonia s agriculture sector to quickly grasp the essentials needed to improve the sector, as well as to inform a general audience on how to address the challenges of a modern European Union (EU)-aspiring state. Chapter two provides an in-depth analysis of the sectoral background, illustrating the main characteristics and challenges of Macedonia s agriculture sector. The illustration takes an integrated approach to the sector, covering a vast range of inter-related topics including the prominence of the sector not only in terms of its economic and social contribution but also its implications for trade, the urban-rural poverty gap and shared prosperity, farm structure, climate adaptation, and capacity building. Chapter three draws on lessons from the European Union (EU) and provides a framework to analyze Macedonia s agricultural support programs. Further, the chapter provides a primer on the EU s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and its measures to support agriculture. Chapter four presents concise empirical evidence of the coverage and institutional capacity of the agricultural programs in Macedonia under both pillar one and pillar two measures. Chapter five then builds on the primary diagnostic set out in the previous chapters and critically examines the alignment of Macedonia s agricultural programs with the government s stated objectives of poverty reduction, competitiveness, and sustainable development. The results are at best mixed, suggesting substantial pathways for scaling up and exploiting untapped opportunities. Finally, chapter six synthesizes the overall evidence and presents policy implications and recommendations.
  • Publication
    Agribusiness Indicators: Mozambique
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-04) World Bank
    Mozambique, the only Lusophone country covered in the agribusiness indicators initiative, has had a turbulent history since independence. Civil unrest over some 20 years and frequent drought in southern Mozambique, coupled with floods near the many waterways that transect the country (mainly east-west), have inhibited an agricultural transformation. Even so, Mozambique could be a regional breadbasket. The country has much potentially usable arable land, along with access to river water for irrigation in many agricultural production zones, particularly in central and northern Mozambique. Sesame, pigeon peas, and cashew exports are significant and rising, not to mention exports of industrial crops such as cotton, leaf tobacco, and sugarcane, yet production of grain and most other food crops remains stagnant. Irrigated area is way below what is possible and needed to increase yields and total agricultural output.
  • Publication
    Agribusiness Indicators: Ethiopia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-04) World Bank
    Because agriculture is the economic backbone of most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia, any meaningful sustainable development program in the continent must therefore be anchored in the sector. The concept for this study on agribusiness indicators was based on the vital role that agribusiness plays in agricultural development. The study focuses on agribusiness indicators (ABI) to identify and isolate the determining factors that lead private investors and other stakeholders to participate in agribusiness and to engage in discourse regarding its development. A more thorough empirical understanding of these determinants in turn can usefully inform the types of policy reforms that can promote agribusiness in Africa. In Ethiopia, the ABI team focused on the following success factors: a) access to critical factors of production of certified hybrid seeds, fertilizer, and mechanical input; b) enabling environment in terms of access of credit and transportation; and c) government expenditures on agriculture, and trade and regulatory policies that currently influence the agribusiness environment. The factors and indicators that the research team has included in this study are not exhaustive but rather are intended to serve as a pilot that could be scaled up to include more variables and countries. The findings of the study revealed the dominant role of the government in the seed and fertilizer markets. In the seed sub-sector, perennial shortages of both basic and certified seeds have greatly limited agricultural productivity in Ethiopia.
  • Publication
    Intensification of Livestock Production Systems in the North West Region of Cameroon : A South-to-South Collaboration for Technology Transfer, The Tugi Silvopastoral Project
    (Washington, DC, 2012) World Bank
    The Tugi Silvo-pastoral Project (TUSIP) is a South-South Cooperation between the Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Centre (CATIE) based in Costa Rica (www.catie.ac.cr) and the Akwi Memorial Foundation (AMF) based in the North West Region of Cameroon. The main goal of TUSIP was to assess the environmental benefits of a set of silvo-pastoral practices and to empower traditional livestock farmers in Tugi Village by enhancing their capability to manage available crop-animal systems and natural resources in a sustainable manner. TUSIP made efforts in the rehabilitation of degraded pasturelands to ensure adequate year-round availability of forages to increase animal productivity in a sustainable manner, consequently contributing to improving the livelihoods of rural families who depend on livestock activities in Tugi. The project put emphasis on (1) modifying the traditional crop-livestock systems through the implementation of silvo-pastoral options, which helped to diversify income sources, and (2) improving soil fertility, while (3) restoring ecosystem services that were affected by the change in land use from forests to degraded pastures. The project applied participatory methodologies to build the capability of the Tugi population to replicate the technological innovations introduced by TUSIP.
  • Publication
    Increased Productivity and Food Security, Enhanced Resilience and Reduced Carbon Emissions for Sustainable Development: Opportunities and Challenges for a Converging Agenda - Country Examples
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-10) World Bank
    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the challenges and the practical successes that a selected number of countries are experiencing in moving towards 'climate-smart' agriculture while also meeting the food requirements of a growing population, broader economic development and green growth objectives. It complements papers prepared in 2010 on technologies and policy instruments, research, and farmers' perspectives. The paper is also intended to provide a broad country perspective to two additional papers produced for a meeting of African Ministers of Agriculture which took place in Johannesburg in September 2011. The main conclusion is that a number of countries have made impressive progress in integrating 'climate-smart agriculture' into broader development and growth programs. Several countries are supporting policy measures and programs to conserve soil and moisture while enhancing productivity and competitiveness, and are addressing the particular concerns of drought-prone semi-arid areas. They are improving agricultural water management and watershed management, and addressing sea-surges, salinity and coastal flooding. Some countries are also including climate-smart agriculture as a core element in broader green growth agendas. The private sector has a key role to play in climate-smart agriculture, especially where the enabling environment has been favorable. Achieving climate-smart agriculture needs an integrated approach, tackling productivity and food security, risk and resilience, and low carbon growth together, but integration and institutional coordination remains a challenge in many countries.
  • Publication
    Priorities for the Development of Smallholder Agriculture in Swaziland
    (Washington, DC, 2011-06-27) World Bank
    The purpose of this policy note is to contribute to an understanding of the factors that combine to constrain the development of smallholder agriculture in Swaziland. It seeks to shed light on why, despite being well-endowed in land and water resources, and despite having a climate that is generally favorable for the production of crops and livestock, Swaziland is obliged to import substantial amounts of food to feed the population. Also, why, in spite of the significant investments that have made in the agricultural sector and in spite of the extensive farming experience of the 70 percent of the population that lives off the land, smallholder farm productivity and production have been declining over time. Finally, the policy notes identify priority areas where strategic interventions are needed to turn things around and get smallholder agriculture going as a driver of growth and poverty reduction. This note provides an overview of smallholder agriculture in Swaziland, identifes constraints that may be contributing to poor performance in the smallholder sector, and evaluates technological options that could improve productivity of smallholder farmers. In addition, it summarizes the findings of a recent review of public spending on agriculture, undertaken to identify trends and patterns in agricultural spending over the last five years and to determine whether the government's budget allocations have been effective in supporting the intended development of smallholder agriculture. After addressing these questions, the policy note points to entry points where future government interventions could help to reverse the current negative trends.
  • Publication
    Mozambique - Analysis of Public Expenditure in Agriculture : Core Analysis
    (World Bank, 2011-02-19) World Bank
    The objective of this Agriculture Public Expenditure Review (AgPER) is to provide an assessment of the present situation and to offer recommendations to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of public spending in agriculture in Mozambique. The report provides a sectorwide picture of the magnitude and structure of public spending for agriculture in Mozambique over the past six years, and an overall assessment of the budget process in agriculture. It is intended that this analysis will inform future decisions over priority public expenditures for agriculture and the shifts in expenditure allocations and other measures that are necessary to make the most effective and efficient use of government budgetary resources and donors' contributions in the agriculture sector. The information is also meant to inform the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) secretariat about the level and structure of spending in agriculture in Mozambique, and help the Ministry of Agriculture; since 2005 (MINAG) to report suitable figures to NEPAD. The report discusses the budget process in agriculture (budget planning, execution, and reporting) and the linkages between agricultural sector policies and strategy and public expenditures. It suggests possible ways to raise the effectiveness and efficiency of current public spending in agriculture, with a view to enhancing its contribution to Mozambique's economic growth and poverty reduction objectives. An analysis of the spatial pattern of expenditure is also provided. Some emphasis is placed on the adequacy of data sources and planning and on the budgeting procedures necessary in order to continuously align expenditure to objectives, and to maximize their impact. The report also draws some broad conclusions with regard to key options of agricultural policy on the basis of the data collected and available information on the relationship between costs and effects of selected activity strata.
  • Publication
    India Marine Fisheries : Issues, Opportunities and Transitions for Sustainable Development
    (World Bank, 2010-08-01) World Bank
    This study represents a collaborative initiative by the World Bank and the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, to review the marine fisheries sub-sector, within a broader sector that also includes aquaculture and inland fisheries. The policy note provides a major step forward in understanding current issues and future opportunities facing the marine fisheries sub-sector. The marine fishing sub-sector accounts for approximately one percent of national Gross Domestic Product (GDP), but forms an important component of the rural coastal economy, generating income, employment, livelihoods, and food security for an estimated 3.52 million people along the 8,118 km Indian coastline, who depend on fishing for their livelihoods. The study represents an initial analytical review of the Indian marine sub-sector with special emphasis on inshore waters, which faces the greatest challenges for management and sustainable development. The main objectives of the study were to: a) appraise the general structure, conduct and performance of the marine fisheries sub-sector in India with particular focus on the role that marine fishery plays in rural livelihoods for coastal communities; b) identify the main constraints in the marine sub-sector that are impacting on biological sustainability and economically healthy fisheries; c) draw on national and international experience to recommend alternative policy approaches and strategies to address these issues; and d) inform the Government of India during subsequent consultations with key stakeholders about long-term transformations towards better sub-sector performance.