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PublicationChile’s Forests: A Pillar for Inclusive and Sustainable Development(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020) World BankSince the beginning of the twentieth century, Chile embarked on a long journey to develop a forestry model adapted to its national circumstances, achieving considerable progress in the last four decades by significantly increasing its forest cover and developing a highly competitive industry with global reach, making forestry among the country’s main economic activities. Despite the significant achievements made in establishing a vast natural capital based of planted forests in the country, the forest sector faces new challenges. The effects of climate change with increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation are accelerating desertification, land degradation and drought processes. Furthermore it is increasing the frequency and intensity of forest fires, affecting the quality of life of hundreds of thousands of people, the future availability of timber, and generating a variety of other impacts on the country's ecosystems. This new scenario also entails the need to strengthen, modernize and adapt the current institutional framework to enable it to more effectively support the continuous growth of the forest sector in the current national and global context, and continue generating economic, social and environmental benefits for the country. PublicationMali Climate-Smart Agriculture Investment Plan(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-11-27) World Bank GroupThis document provides an investment plan for climate-smart agriculture (CSA) in Mali, developed with support of the AAA Initiative and the World Bank, and technical assistanceof the International Center for Tropical Agriculture, the World Agroforestry Centre and the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture, Climate Change and Food Security (CCAFS). It identifies specific interventions that define on-the-ground action that are consistent with Mali’s NDC and national agricultural strategy, which can be funded by public and private sector partners. CSA interventions are designed to increase agricultural productivity, to help farmers, livestock keepers and fisher-people adapt and build resilience to climate risks, and, where appropriate, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that cause climate change.This plan includes a set of 12 key CSA investments for Mali that were developed with strong stakeholder engagement, expert input and scientific evidence. This plan is not intended to be comprehensive but can further include additional projects when more funds will be available. The plan presents a situation analysis of Mali’s national policies, plans and programs in relation to key climate risks, which form the context for key prioritized interventions. Designed project concepts are developed for each of these key investments, including the main project objectives, components and implementation arrangements. These provide a tangible set of project concepts for potential investors and donors to consider for funding. Finally, a general framing for developing a monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework for the CSA investment plan (CSAIP) is provided, showing how CSA outcomes relate to other M&E frameworks and other monitoring activities for national-level development priorities.The CSAIP provides the context and evidence for the importance of these projects, and details how they can be economically beneficial and provide food security to the people of Mali. This can help spur investment and funding for CSA to help Mali deliver on its NDC and other national targets. PublicationBangladesh Climate-Smart Agriculture Investment Plan: Investment Opportunities in the Agriculture Sector’s Transition to a Climate Resilient Growth Path(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06-26) World Bank GroupBangladesh’s agriculture sector is the country’s main source of food security, employment, and poverty alleviation. More than 70 percent of Bangladesh’s population and 77 percent of its workforce lives in rural areas. Nearly half of all Bangladeshi workers and two-thirds of workers in rural areas are directly employed in agriculture. About 87 percent of the nation’s rural households rely on agriculture for at least part of their income. With one of the fastest rates of productivity growth in the world (averaging 2.7 percent per year since 1995, second only to China), Bangladesh’s agriculture sector accounted for 90 percent of the country’s reduction in poverty between 2005 and 2010. This growth has also allowed the country to triple its rice production since it gained independence in 1971 and to halve its food deficit, and with it the number of malnourished people, since the mid-1990s. In 1991, nearly two-thirds of Bangladeshi children were underweight; today that number is less than one-third. Bangladesh faces growing demand for food and pressure from rapid land use change including significant losses of arable land. Population increases to an estimated 186 million by 2030 and 202 million by 2050, increasing income levels, and rapid urbanization at a rate of 3.5 percent annually 1 are expected to shift diets away from rice and wheat toward animal-based diets. At the same time, while Bangladesh produces almost all its own rice, current yield trends indicate production will not be able to satisfy growing demand for cereals (including rice), which is projected to increase 21 percent by 2030 and 24 percent by 2050. Given the increasing population density and continued loss of arable land caused by urbanization and other factors, enhancing the productivity of rice and other staple foods remains crucial. These trends suggest that Bangladesh must sustainably increase food production on far less arable land per capita to continue to strive for self-sufficiency in agricultural production. The World Bank considers climate-smart agriculture (CSA) a strategic priority investment in response to climate change in agriculture. The executive directors of the International Development Association (IDA) of the World Bank Group have recognized the need to address several concerning trends in the world’s poorest countries, including the growing demand for food, the unsustainable pressure of current agricultural practices on agricultural landscapes, the increasing threat of climate change to agricultural productivity, and agriculture’s significant contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. PublicationCote d’Ivoire Climate-Smart Agriculture Investment Plan(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-01) World Bank GroupClimate change threatens to bring substantial impacts to Côte d’Ivoire’s agriculture sector, which is central to the country’s economic productivity and food security. Climate change, of course, poses challenges not only for Côte d’Ivoire but also for countries across Africa. Côte d’Ivoire is a signatory to the United National Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Paris agreement and has submitted its nationally determined contributions (NDC), committing to take action both on adaptation to climate change and on reducing greenhouse emissions. Côte d’Ivoire is by far a minor emitter of greenhouse gases. This document provides an investment plan for climate-smart agriculture (CSA) in Côte d’Ivoire, developed with support of the AAA Initiative and the World Bank, and technical assistance of the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). This plan includes a set of twelve key CSA investments for Côte d’Ivoire that were developed with strong stakeholder engagement, expert input and scientific evidence. Because it is a member of the AAA Initiative and is also committed to delivering on its NDC commitments, Côte d’Ivoire now has an investment plan that includes a set of specific climate-smart projects that improve productivity, build resilience to climate change and, as appropriate, reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the agriculture sector. PublicationTransforming Vietnamese Agriculture: Gaining More for Less(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-04) World Bank GroupOver the past quarter century, Vietnam’s agricultural sector has made enormous progress. Vietnam’s performance in terms of agricultural yields, output, and exports, however, has been more impressive than its gains in efficiency, farmer welfare, and product quality. Vietnamese agriculture now sits at a turning point. The agricultural sector now faces growing domestic competition - from cities, industry, and services - for labor, land, and water. Rising labor costs are beginning to inhibit the sector’s ability to compete globally as a low cost producer of bulk undifferentiated commodities. Going forward, Vietnam’s agricultural sector needs to generate more from less. That is, it must generate more economic value - and farmer and consumer welfare - using less natural and human capital and less harmful intermediate inputs. The strategic shift was highlighted in the government’s agricultural restructuring plan (ARP), approved by the Prime Minister in June 2014. The ARP defines sector goals in terms of the triple bottom line of economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable development. It lays out expected changes in the roles and spending patterns of the government in the sector and discusses the need to work with other stakeholders, including in the private sector. It calls for an ambitious and ongoing process of learning and experimentation, and several potential directions are offered in this report. PublicationAgriculture in Nicaragua: Performance, Challenges, and Options(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-11) Piccioni, Norman BentleyThis work summarizes background papers prepared for the World Bank Group with significant input from government counterparts and other development partners. It takes stock of major recent developments and argues that a lot has been achieved in the last decade in terms of production of commodities for export and food consumption, with favorable impact on rural poverty reduction. It also argues that the two factors driving the recent agricultural performance, namely favorable international prices and expansion of the agricultural frontier, have reached their limits. So while trade policies are broadly on target, much can be done by focusing on the productivity of small family agriculture and improving competitiveness by reducing transaction costs (logistics) affecting small, medium, and large commercial farms. In the short to medium term, the household income of the rural poor will continue to depend largely on agriculture. Thus interventions will need to take into account the heterogeneity of smallholder agriculture while simultaneously increasing its resilience to climate risks through climate-smart agriculture.