Items in this collection
PublicationGrowing Africa: Unlocking the Potential of Agribusiness(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-03-11) World BankThis report highlights the great potential of the agribusiness sector in Africa by drawing on experience in Africa as well as other regions. The evidence demonstrates that good policies, a conducive business environment, and strategic support from governments can help agribusiness reach its potential. Africa is now at a crossroads, from which it can take concrete steps to realize its potential or continue to lose competitiveness, missing a major opportunity for increased growth, employment, and food security. The report pursues several lines of analysis. First, it synthesizes the large body of work on agriculture and agribusiness in Africa. Second, it builds on a diagnosis of specific value chains. As part of this effort, the value chain for Africa's largest and fastest-growing food import, rice, is benchmarked in Senegal and Ghana against Thailand's rice value chain. Third, 170 agribusiness investments by the Commonwealth Development Corporation (CDC) in Africa and Southeast Asia are analyzed to gain perspective on the elements of success and failure. Fourth, the report synthesizes perspectives from the private sector through interviews with 23 leading agribusiness investors and a number of other key informants. In conclusion, the report offers practical policy advice based on the experience of countries from within and outside Africa. The huge diversity of Africa's agro-ecological, market, and business environments, however, necessarily means that each country (and indeed regions within countries) will need to adapt the broad guidance provided here to the local context. Annex 1, concerning the rice value chain, was authored by John Orchard, Tim Chancellor, Roy Denton, Amadou Abdoulaye Fall, and Peter Jaeger. Annex 2, containing interviews with 23 leading agribusiness players in Africa, was authored by Peter White. PublicationAgribusiness Indicators: Mozambique(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-04) World BankMozambique, the only Lusophone country covered in the agribusiness indicators initiative, has had a turbulent history since independence. Civil unrest over some 20 years and frequent drought in southern Mozambique, coupled with floods near the many waterways that transect the country (mainly east-west), have inhibited an agricultural transformation. Even so, Mozambique could be a regional breadbasket. The country has much potentially usable arable land, along with access to river water for irrigation in many agricultural production zones, particularly in central and northern Mozambique. Sesame, pigeon peas, and cashew exports are significant and rising, not to mention exports of industrial crops such as cotton, leaf tobacco, and sugarcane, yet production of grain and most other food crops remains stagnant. Irrigated area is way below what is possible and needed to increase yields and total agricultural output. PublicationAgribusiness Indicators: Ethiopia(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-04) World BankBecause agriculture is the economic backbone of most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia, any meaningful sustainable development program in the continent must therefore be anchored in the sector. The concept for this study on agribusiness indicators was based on the vital role that agribusiness plays in agricultural development. The study focuses on agribusiness indicators (ABI) to identify and isolate the determining factors that lead private investors and other stakeholders to participate in agribusiness and to engage in discourse regarding its development. A more thorough empirical understanding of these determinants in turn can usefully inform the types of policy reforms that can promote agribusiness in Africa. In Ethiopia, the ABI team focused on the following success factors: a) access to critical factors of production of certified hybrid seeds, fertilizer, and mechanical input; b) enabling environment in terms of access of credit and transportation; and c) government expenditures on agriculture, and trade and regulatory policies that currently influence the agribusiness environment. The factors and indicators that the research team has included in this study are not exhaustive but rather are intended to serve as a pilot that could be scaled up to include more variables and countries. The findings of the study revealed the dominant role of the government in the seed and fertilizer markets. In the seed sub-sector, perennial shortages of both basic and certified seeds have greatly limited agricultural productivity in Ethiopia. PublicationIntensification of Livestock Production Systems in the North West Region of Cameroon : A South-to-South Collaboration for Technology Transfer, The Tugi Silvopastoral Project(Washington, DC, 2012) World BankThe Tugi Silvo-pastoral Project (TUSIP) is a South-South Cooperation between the Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Centre (CATIE) based in Costa Rica (www.catie.ac.cr) and the Akwi Memorial Foundation (AMF) based in the North West Region of Cameroon. The main goal of TUSIP was to assess the environmental benefits of a set of silvo-pastoral practices and to empower traditional livestock farmers in Tugi Village by enhancing their capability to manage available crop-animal systems and natural resources in a sustainable manner. TUSIP made efforts in the rehabilitation of degraded pasturelands to ensure adequate year-round availability of forages to increase animal productivity in a sustainable manner, consequently contributing to improving the livelihoods of rural families who depend on livestock activities in Tugi. The project put emphasis on (1) modifying the traditional crop-livestock systems through the implementation of silvo-pastoral options, which helped to diversify income sources, and (2) improving soil fertility, while (3) restoring ecosystem services that were affected by the change in land use from forests to degraded pastures. The project applied participatory methodologies to build the capability of the Tugi population to replicate the technological innovations introduced by TUSIP. PublicationIncreased Productivity and Food Security, Enhanced Resilience and Reduced Carbon Emissions for Sustainable Development: Opportunities and Challenges for a Converging Agenda - Country Examples(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-10) World BankThe purpose of this paper is to summarize the challenges and the practical successes that a selected number of countries are experiencing in moving towards 'climate-smart' agriculture while also meeting the food requirements of a growing population, broader economic development and green growth objectives. It complements papers prepared in 2010 on technologies and policy instruments, research, and farmers' perspectives. The paper is also intended to provide a broad country perspective to two additional papers produced for a meeting of African Ministers of Agriculture which took place in Johannesburg in September 2011. The main conclusion is that a number of countries have made impressive progress in integrating 'climate-smart agriculture' into broader development and growth programs. Several countries are supporting policy measures and programs to conserve soil and moisture while enhancing productivity and competitiveness, and are addressing the particular concerns of drought-prone semi-arid areas. They are improving agricultural water management and watershed management, and addressing sea-surges, salinity and coastal flooding. Some countries are also including climate-smart agriculture as a core element in broader green growth agendas. The private sector has a key role to play in climate-smart agriculture, especially where the enabling environment has been favorable. Achieving climate-smart agriculture needs an integrated approach, tackling productivity and food security, risk and resilience, and low carbon growth together, but integration and institutional coordination remains a challenge in many countries. PublicationPriorities for the Development of Smallholder Agriculture in Swaziland(Washington, DC, 2011-06-27) World BankThe purpose of this policy note is to contribute to an understanding of the factors that combine to constrain the development of smallholder agriculture in Swaziland. It seeks to shed light on why, despite being well-endowed in land and water resources, and despite having a climate that is generally favorable for the production of crops and livestock, Swaziland is obliged to import substantial amounts of food to feed the population. Also, why, in spite of the significant investments that have made in the agricultural sector and in spite of the extensive farming experience of the 70 percent of the population that lives off the land, smallholder farm productivity and production have been declining over time. Finally, the policy notes identify priority areas where strategic interventions are needed to turn things around and get smallholder agriculture going as a driver of growth and poverty reduction. This note provides an overview of smallholder agriculture in Swaziland, identifes constraints that may be contributing to poor performance in the smallholder sector, and evaluates technological options that could improve productivity of smallholder farmers. In addition, it summarizes the findings of a recent review of public spending on agriculture, undertaken to identify trends and patterns in agricultural spending over the last five years and to determine whether the government's budget allocations have been effective in supporting the intended development of smallholder agriculture. After addressing these questions, the policy note points to entry points where future government interventions could help to reverse the current negative trends. PublicationMozambique - Analysis of Public Expenditure in Agriculture : Core Analysis(World Bank, 2011-02-19) World BankThe objective of this Agriculture Public Expenditure Review (AgPER) is to provide an assessment of the present situation and to offer recommendations to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of public spending in agriculture in Mozambique. The report provides a sectorwide picture of the magnitude and structure of public spending for agriculture in Mozambique over the past six years, and an overall assessment of the budget process in agriculture. It is intended that this analysis will inform future decisions over priority public expenditures for agriculture and the shifts in expenditure allocations and other measures that are necessary to make the most effective and efficient use of government budgetary resources and donors' contributions in the agriculture sector. The information is also meant to inform the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) secretariat about the level and structure of spending in agriculture in Mozambique, and help the Ministry of Agriculture; since 2005 (MINAG) to report suitable figures to NEPAD. The report discusses the budget process in agriculture (budget planning, execution, and reporting) and the linkages between agricultural sector policies and strategy and public expenditures. It suggests possible ways to raise the effectiveness and efficiency of current public spending in agriculture, with a view to enhancing its contribution to Mozambique's economic growth and poverty reduction objectives. An analysis of the spatial pattern of expenditure is also provided. Some emphasis is placed on the adequacy of data sources and planning and on the budgeting procedures necessary in order to continuously align expenditure to objectives, and to maximize their impact. The report also draws some broad conclusions with regard to key options of agricultural policy on the basis of the data collected and available information on the relationship between costs and effects of selected activity strata. PublicationCameroon - Agricultural Value Chain : Competitiveness Study(Washington, DC, 2008-06) World BankThis study, competitiveness of the value chain of the agricultural sector in Cameroon, aims to help the Government achieve its objectives for the rural sector. The main objective of this study was to provide information on the potentials, investment and growth policies of commercial agriculture in Cameroon. It gives an overview of the constraints and analyzes the national, regional or international competitiveness of six value chains of the agricultural sector. This paper examines family and large agro-industrial farms from different regions of Cameroon. The six aspects studied are: cassava, cotton, maize, palm oil, plantain and poultry. The primary purpose of this study of competitiveness is to identify products and operating systems already competitive or having the ability to become competitive on the domestic, regional or global market. The Government has explicitly asked the Bank to support new projects of its agricultural program. This economic and sectoral work will serve as a basis for a new loan to the agricultural sector of Cameroon. PublicationInvestment in Agricultural Water for Poverty Reduction and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa : Synthesis Report(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-01) World BankThe report analyses the contribution to date of agricultural water management to poverty reduction and growth in the in sub-Saharan Africa region, the reasons for its slow expansion and apparently poor track record, as well as the ways in which increased investment in agricultural water management could make a sustainable contribution to further poverty reduction and growth. The first chapter places agricultural water management in the context of the millennium development goals and paths to poverty reduction through agricultural growth. The second to fifth chapters contain a regional diagnostic that looks at the role of agricultural water management in sub-Saharan Africa, examines the contribution that investment projects have made, reviews the changing institutional context, and assesses the potential for further development. The sixth and the final chapter then summarizes the lessons and recommendations for increasing the contribution of agricultural water management to poverty reduction and growth in the region. PublicationThe Cost of Land Degradation in Ethiopia : A Review of Past Studies(Washington, DC, 2007-04) World BankThis paper reviews past studies on the costs of land degradation in Ethiopia, with a view to drawing implications for policies, programs, and future research on sustainable land management (SLM). Given the wide range of methods and assumptions used in the studies, their findings concerning annual costs of land degradation relative to agricultural gross domestic product (AGDP) are of remarkably similar magnitude. The minimum estimated annual costs of land degradation in Ethiopia range from 2 to 3 percent of AGDP. This estimate does not take into account downstream effects such as flooding, suggesting that actual total costs are possibly much higher than the 2-3 percent range. A onetime occurrence of a 2-3 percent reduction in AGDP might be manageable, but the cumulative losses to land degradation over time are very serious for an agriculturally based economy. Such cumulative losses represent a significant drag on rural growth and poverty reduction and jeopardize long-term, sustainable development.