Other Agriculture Study

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  • Publication
    Dynamics of Rural Growth in Bangladesh: Sustaining Poverty Reduction
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-05-17) World Bank Group
    The rural economy in Bangladesh has been a powerful source of economic growth and has substantially reduced poverty, especially since 2000, but the remarkable transformation and unprecedented dynamism in rural Bangladesh are an underexplored, underappreciated, and largely untold story. The analysis identifies the key changes occurring in the rural economy, the principal drivers of rural incomes, the implications for policy, and related actions to foster future growth, further reduce poverty, and improve food security and nutrition. A substantial strength of this study is its empirical foundation, consisting of three sets of detailed data on rural households. Two of the datasets are unique in tracking the same set of households for more than two decades. These data make it possible to examine how change is occurring within and among rural households; they shed considerable light on trends that tend to be obscured at more aggregate levels of analysis. Nationally representative surveys and aggregate secondary data provide complementary and contextually rich insights into the household data.
  • Publication
    Republic of India : Accelerating Agricultural Productivity Growth
    (Washington, DC, 2014-05-21) World Bank Group
    In the past 50 years, Indian agriculture has undergone a major transformation, from dependence on food aid to becoming a consistent net food exporter. The gradual reforms in the agricultural sector (following the broader macro-reforms of the early 1990s) spurred some unprecedented innovations and changes in the food sector driven by private investment. These impressive achievements must now be viewed in light of the policy and investment imperatives that lie ahead. Agricultural growth has improved in recent years (averaging about 3.5 percent since 2004-05), but at a long-term trend rate of growth of 3 percent, agriculture has underperformed relative to its potential. The pockets of post-reform dynamism that have emerged evidently have not reached a sufficiently large scale to influence the sector's performance. For the vast population that still derives a living directly or indirectly from agriculture, achieving "faster, more inclusive, and sustainable growth', the objectives at the heart of the Twelfth five year plan, depends critically on simultaneous efforts to improve agriculture's performance and develop new sources of employment for the disproportionately large share of the labor force still on the farm. The scope of this study is broad in the sense that it marshals considerable empirical evidence and analyses to address those issues. Yet the scope is restricted in the sense that the study does not address all of the issues. A wealth of knowledge exists (and continuing analytical work proceeds) on other major strategic issues, water and irrigation management, food grain management, and public expenditures on agriculture, for example, and the findings of this study must be seen in that context. The lack of sufficient quality data, and often the lack of access to such data, also prevents some issues from being explored in greater depth. Finally, some important issues require more focused and dedicated analysis, such as food safety and quality standards, agricultural trade, and food price increases. This relationship between longer-term strategic issues and contemporary concerns, such as water resource management and food prices, are highlighted in this study through the prism of productivity, but they too require further analysis to fully address the underlying issues.
  • Publication
    Republic of India : Accelerating Agricultural Productivity Growth
    (Washington, DC, 2014-05-21) World Bank
    In the past 50 years, Indian agriculture has undergone a major transformation, from dependence on food aid to becoming a consistent net food exporter. The gradual reforms in the agricultural sector (following the broader macro-reforms of the early 1990s) spurred some unprecedented innovations and changes in the food sector driven by private investment. These impressive achievements must now be viewed in light of the policy and investment imperatives that lie ahead. Agricultural growth has improved in recent years (averaging about 3.5 percent since 2004-05), but at a long-term trend rate of growth of 3 percent, agriculture has underperformed relative to its potential. The pockets of post-reform dynamism that have emerged evidently have not reached a sufficiently large scale to influence the sector's performance. For the vast population that still derives a living directly or indirectly from agriculture, achieving "faster, more inclusive, and sustainable growth', the objectives at the heart of the Twelfth five year plan, depends critically on simultaneous efforts to improve agriculture's performance and develop new sources of employment for the disproportionately large share of the labor force still on the farm. The scope of this study is broad in the sense that it marshals considerable empirical evidence and analyses to address those issues. Yet the scope is restricted in the sense that the study does not address all of the issues. A wealth of knowledge exists (and continuing analytical work proceeds) on other major strategic issues, water and irrigation management, food grain management, and public expenditures on agriculture, for example, and the findings of this study must be seen in that context. The lack of sufficient quality data, and often the lack of access to such data, also prevents some issues from being explored in greater depth. Finally, some important issues require more focused and dedicated analysis, such as food safety and quality standards, agricultural trade, and food price increases. This relationship between longer-term strategic issues and contemporary concerns, such as water resource management and food prices, are highlighted in this study through the prism of productivity, but they too require further analysis to fully address the underlying issues.
  • Publication
    Business and Livelihoods in African Livestock : Investments to Overcome Information Gaps
    (Washington, DC, 2014-02) World Bank
    This paper investigates how the development of the livestock sector can contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction in the continent, with the ultimate objective of identifying major information gaps critical to designing and implementing successful livestock sector policies and investments. As a first step, the paper presents an analysis of African consumption of animal-source foods. This is rapidly growing and is forecast to continue doing so. It therefore provides opportunities for demand-led growth. This focus is distinct from the more traditional, production-oriented entry point. To understand opportunities for poverty reduction, this paper reviews both the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of African markets for livestock products, in this case animal-source foods. Second, rather than exploring production and productivity constraints, which are known to a large extent, the paper focuses on the incentives that rural households have to invest in their livestock to overcome those constraints. Indeed, farmers often fail to adopt readily available technologies. To analyze incentives, the paper reviews two intertwined dimensions of households' livestock activities, namely herd and flock size and livestock-derived income. The paper concludes by identifying investment priorities for improving the quantity and quality of livestock information so that decision makers will be better able to formulate and implement investments in the livestock sector that effectively contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction.
  • Publication
    Investing in the Livestock Sector : Why Good Numbers Matter, A Sourcebook for Decision Makers on How to Improve Livestock Data
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014) Pica-Ciamarra, Ugo; Baker, Derek; Morgan, Nancy; Zezza, Alberto; Azzarri, Carlo; Ly, Cheikh; Nsiima, Longin; Nouala, Simplice; Okello, Patrick; Sserugga, Joseph
    This sourcebook summarizes the outputs and lessons of the Livestock in Africa: improving data for better policies project. It aims to present the challenges facing professionals collecting and analyzing livestock data and statistics and possible solutions. While the Sourcebook does not address all conceivable issues related to enhancing livestock data and underlining statistical issues, it does represent a unique document for a number of reasons. To begin with, it is possibly the first document which specifically addresses the broad complexity of livestock data collection, taking into consideration the unique characteristics of the sector. Indeed, in most cases livestock data are dealt with, if ever, within the context of major agricultural initiatives. Second, the sourcebook is a joint product of users and suppliers of livestock data, with its overarching objective being to respond to the information needs of data users, and primarily the Ministries responsible for livestock in African countries and the National Statistical Authorities. Finally, the sourcebook represents a unique experiment of inter-institutional collaboration, which jointly places the World Bank, the FAO Animal Production and Health Division, the ILRI and the Africa Union, Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources as well as national governments in Niger, Tanzania and Uganda at the forefront of data and statistical innovation for evidence-based livestock sector policies and investments. This sourcebook represents a first step towards a demand-driven and sustainable approach to enhance the livestock information available to decision makers. It is hoped it will provide a useable framework for significantly improving the quantity and quality of livestock data and statistics available to the public and private sector, and also increase the efficacy of investments that country governments and the international community allocate to generate information for livestock sector policies and investments.
  • Publication
    Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of : Analysis of the Agricultural Support Programs
    (Washington, DC, 2013-10) World Bank
    The report is structured to allow readers familiar with Macedonia s agriculture sector to quickly grasp the essentials needed to improve the sector, as well as to inform a general audience on how to address the challenges of a modern European Union (EU)-aspiring state. Chapter two provides an in-depth analysis of the sectoral background, illustrating the main characteristics and challenges of Macedonia s agriculture sector. The illustration takes an integrated approach to the sector, covering a vast range of inter-related topics including the prominence of the sector not only in terms of its economic and social contribution but also its implications for trade, the urban-rural poverty gap and shared prosperity, farm structure, climate adaptation, and capacity building. Chapter three draws on lessons from the European Union (EU) and provides a framework to analyze Macedonia s agricultural support programs. Further, the chapter provides a primer on the EU s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and its measures to support agriculture. Chapter four presents concise empirical evidence of the coverage and institutional capacity of the agricultural programs in Macedonia under both pillar one and pillar two measures. Chapter five then builds on the primary diagnostic set out in the previous chapters and critically examines the alignment of Macedonia s agricultural programs with the government s stated objectives of poverty reduction, competitiveness, and sustainable development. The results are at best mixed, suggesting substantial pathways for scaling up and exploiting untapped opportunities. Finally, chapter six synthesizes the overall evidence and presents policy implications and recommendations.
  • Publication
    Collecting Livestock Data : A Snapshot of Survey Methods
    (Washington, DC, 2012-09) World Bank
    The design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation of livestock sector public and private sector investments are based on evidence and information generated by a multitude of data collection systems, including regular and one-off, or ad-hoc, surveys. This note reviews the major survey methods that are regularly implemented by developing country governments, including: the agricultural and livestock census; agricultural and livestock sample surveys; household budget surveys; living standards measurement studies; administrative records or routine data; and others, such as the population and housing census and labor surveys. It identifies the major livestock-related indicators that the various surveys for which the prime target rarely is livestock are likely to generate. Understanding these data sources is critical for decision makers to make appropriate use of available data and indicators, and is the first step in designing and setting up a comprehensive livestock data collection system. The note concludes by highlighting that a system of livestock statistics must be seen as part of a broader framework of statistical collection on a national level and that the effective integration of livestock data, whether derived through broader agricultural surveys, administrative records, or one-off surveys, is essential for ensuring quality data which can feed into policy formulation or designing effective investments in the livestock sector.
  • Publication
    El Salvador Country Land Assessment
    (Washington, DC, 2012-06) World Bank
    This study assesses the alignment of land use, land tenure, and land market outcomes in El Salvador with public policy aspirations in recent decades for efficient, inclusive, and environmentally sustainable development in both urban and rural spaces. In doing so the study indirectly gauges the effectiveness of land sector institutions in facilitating such developmental outcomes in agricultural production, urbanization, and forest management. Chapter 1 briefly reviews some of the prominent struggles over land in El Salvador and outlines the salient features of today's institutional framework for land governance. Chapter 2 asks the question, "How effective have public policy interventions, including the Agrarian Reform, been in reducing rural inequality and tenure insecurity?". Chapter 3 explores what has happened to the lands transferred to Agrarian Reform cooperatives under the last iterations of the Agrarian Reform. Chapter 4 asks the question, "How has land governance in El Salvador responded to the challenges of urban land supply in the last decade?". In Chapter 5 the extent to which urban spatial expansion in El Salvador has been occurring in an inclusive way is explored. Chapter 6 presents the findings of the original analyses of land use in relation to deforestation. Chapter 7 analyzes available land market data in three Departments, Ahuachapan, Santa Ana, and Sonsonate, to identify trends and land use dynamism in the first decade of this century. Chapter 8 looks at the study's empirical findings from a more integrated, cross-sectoral perspective so that their implications for public policy are better understood. The final Chapter of the study presents policy options for consideration by the Government of El Salvador and the country's civil society organizations in order to address the key challenges related to land tenure, land use, and territorial planning.
  • Publication
    Measuring the Contribution of Livestock to Household Livelihoods : A Livestock Module for Multi-topic Household Surveys
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-11) Pica-Ciamarra, Ugo; Baker, Derek; Morgan, Nancy; Zezza, Alberto
    About 60 percent of rural households in developing countries are estimated to fully or partly depend on livestock for their livelihoods. Available household level livestock data, however, are insufficient to appreciate the contribution of livestock to household livelihoods, including both the monetary and non-monetary benefits provided by farm animals. This challenges the design and implementation of effective investments in the sector. This paper presents a livestock module for multi-topic household surveys, which targets improved livestock-related questions therein. The livestock module for multi-topic household surveys has been jointly elaborated by the FAO, the ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute) and the World Bank, as part of the Livestock Data for Better Policies in Africa Project. It consists of a core set of questions, which quantify both livestock herd and the various contributions of farm animals to household livelihoods, including cash income, food, manure, draft power and hauling services, savings and insurance and social capital. It then includes additional detailed questions on livestock characteristics (e.g. breeding, branding, etc.), husbandry practices (e.g. feeding, watering, etc.) and outputs (e.g. milk, dung, etc.) which, depending on the country, may or may not be included in multi-topic household surveys. The module is a public good, which has been used to develop multi-topic household questionnaires in collaboration with country governments in Niger, Tanzania and Uganda. Data from these surveys will be freely available for analysis in 2012 and 2013, providing an unprecedented opportunity to enhance the understanding of the livestock poverty-wellbeing linkages at the household level.
  • Publication
    Increased Productivity and Food Security, Enhanced Resilience and Reduced Carbon Emissions for Sustainable Development: Opportunities and Challenges for a Converging Agenda - Country Examples
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2011-10) World Bank
    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the challenges and the practical successes that a selected number of countries are experiencing in moving towards 'climate-smart' agriculture while also meeting the food requirements of a growing population, broader economic development and green growth objectives. It complements papers prepared in 2010 on technologies and policy instruments, research, and farmers' perspectives. The paper is also intended to provide a broad country perspective to two additional papers produced for a meeting of African Ministers of Agriculture which took place in Johannesburg in September 2011. The main conclusion is that a number of countries have made impressive progress in integrating 'climate-smart agriculture' into broader development and growth programs. Several countries are supporting policy measures and programs to conserve soil and moisture while enhancing productivity and competitiveness, and are addressing the particular concerns of drought-prone semi-arid areas. They are improving agricultural water management and watershed management, and addressing sea-surges, salinity and coastal flooding. Some countries are also including climate-smart agriculture as a core element in broader green growth agendas. The private sector has a key role to play in climate-smart agriculture, especially where the enabling environment has been favorable. Achieving climate-smart agriculture needs an integrated approach, tackling productivity and food security, risk and resilience, and low carbon growth together, but integration and institutional coordination remains a challenge in many countries.