Other Agriculture Study

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    Agricultural Transformation and Inclusive Growth: The Malaysian Experience
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-11) World Bank Group
    The Malaysian story involves a farsighted leadership that has mobilized the considerable assets of a resource-rich country to translate a long-term vision of nation building into action and transformational results. This report analyzes what Malaysia did to achieve transformative results in agriculture. It focuses on four main areas in which the Malaysian experience is distinctive and which have been critical to its success, as follows: (1) The role of the public sector, encompassing national leadership, vision, and government action; (2) The main drivers of transformation and inclusive growth; (3) The role of value chains; (4) The inclusiveness of Malaysia's agricultural transformation.
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    Strengthening Higher Agricultural Education in Africa
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06-27) World Bank
    Over the last decade African governments’ and regional economic organizations have increasingly recognized the need to reshape higher agricultural education to meet the changing needs of the agri-food sector. There is a strong appetite for change but a need for a better understanding of the challenges that universities face in transforming into institutions that can be more dynamic and responsive, especially to the needs of the private sector, that is more relevant by the public sector and meet the rapidly growing demand for university places. The study is being prepared at a time when the World Bank along with other development partners are considering possible approaches to address these challenges. It follows regional dialogue on this theme in Africa in recent years involving African governments, regional agro-innovation and education networks including Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM), under the umbrella of the African Union Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Program. (CAADP). The study is structured as follows: section two describes the role of higher agricultural education in the wider agro-innovation system and the means through which higher education can drive transformation of the agri-food sector and economic development in Africa; section three describes global trends in agriculture that will drive changes in employers’ knowledge and skills needs; section four describes the implications of these trends for skill and knowledge needs; section five describes the core challenges that universities face in transforming to be more responsive to needs; and the final section six provides recommendations on reforms and investments to strengthen higher education in Africa.
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    South Sudan: Linking the Agriculture and Food Sector to the Job Creation Agenda
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06) World Bank
    This report seeks to support the larger jobs study by examining how investment in South Sudan’s food sector can not only address food security needs, it can generate income and lay the foundation for livelihood and job creation in the country. It argues that applying a value chain lens to investments in the sector can contribute to creating direct, indirect, and induced labor in the food system. The goal is to move the country from a dependency on humanitarian aid to building recovery and resilience in the short term in a way that can produce stable jobs over the medium to long term. More specifically, it looks at the potential technology and organizational arrangements that investment programs can start supporting now to stimulate value chain development for increased economic activity and job creation. The assumption is that significant donor support will still be necessary for the short to medium term to support investments in reconstruction and food security. As security spreads, public sector capacity to support development can grow, private actors can establish or expand their operations, and the donor community can begin to disengage, addressing only the neediest communities while development organizations continue to work with the public and private sector actors to support development and economic transformation.
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    Agriculture Productivity Growth in Brazil: Recent Trends and Future Prospects
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-09-24) Arias, Diego ; Vieira, Pedro Abel ; Contini, Elisio ; Farinelli, Barbara ; Morris, Michael
    The industrialization process in Brazil begun in the 1960s and intensified in the 1970s, however the expected productivity growth of the overall economy and structural transformation did not happen. Since the end of the 1970s, the Brazilian labor productivity has been lower than many similar economies, currently representing around one fourth of the average labor productivity in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. One of the reasons for the weak productivity performance of the Brazilian economy in the past decades has been the manufacturing sector. Between 2000-2013, agriculture productivity rose by 105.6 percent, compared to only 11.7 percent in the services sector and -5.5 percent in the manufacturing sector. This report will focus mainly on policies related to key production factors (such as human, physical, and natural capital) and agriculture policies. The motivation for this report is to explore the evolution and source of the strong agriculture productivity growth that has occurred in Brazil in recent decades, identifying opportunities and challenges for future development of the sector. The goal is to look for opportunities to accelerate agriculture productivity growth, to have an increased impact on sector growth, jobs, environmental sustainability, and poverty reduction, as well as potentially to shed light on lessons that can contribute to efforts to boost productivity in other sectors within Brazil. The report is divided into five sections. Section one give introduction; section two describes the evolution and sources of agriculture productivity growth in recent years; section three evaluates the contributions of different factors of production, such as natural, human, and physical capital; section four explores the opportunities for further maximizing agriculture growth in Brazil through increases in productivity; and section five presents conclusions and policy recommendations on how to further maximize agriculture productivity in Brazil while having positive social (poverty reduction and jobs) and environmental impacts.
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    Agriculture Productivity Growth in Brazil: Recent Trends and Future Prospects
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-09-24) Arias, Diego ; Vieira, Pedro Abel ; Contini, Elisio ; Farinelli, Barbara ; Morris, Michael
    This report explains about the agriculture productivity growth in Brazil.Agriculture has been an island of success in terms of productivity growth in the last decades compared to other sectors of the Brazilian economy and compared to other country’s agriculture sector.Agriculture productivity growth in recent decades in Brazil has been mainly driven by investments in agriculture innovation, facilitation of sector financing, and trade liberalization. Trade liberalization has shown to be an important factor in the growth of agriculture productivity in recent decades, which can serve as an important experience for other Brazilian economic sectors that remain relatively close to trade. Agriculture productivity has room to grow further, improving productivity of lagging mid-size farmers and regions, reforming agriculture policies towards agriculture financing, agrologistics, and research and development(R&D).Experience within Brazil shows that agriculture productivity can continue to grow without depleting natural capital nor further increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Unlike the structural economic transformation of other countries, Brazilian agriculture productivity growth has been a net job creator. Agriculture productivity growth in Brazil can therefore continue its positive upward trend, while being environmentally sustainable, creating jobs, and increasing incomes for the rural poor.The motivation for this report is to explore the evolution and source of the strong agriculture productivity growth that has occurred in Brazil in recent decades, identifying opportunities and challenges for future development of the sector. The goal is to look for opportunities to accelerate agriculture productivity growth, to have an increased impact on sector growth, jobs, environmental sustainability, and poverty reduction, as well as potentially to shed light on lessons that can contribute to efforts to boost productivity in other sectors within Brazil. The report is divided into five sections. Following this introduction, Section two describes the evolution and sources of agriculture productivity growth in recent years; Section three evaluates the contributions of different factors of production, such as natural, human and physical capital; Section four explores the opportunities for further maximizing agriculture growth in Brazil through increases in productivity; and Section five presents conclusions and policy recommendations on how to further maximize agriculture productivity in Brazil while having positive social (poverty reduction and jobs) and environmental impacts.
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    Towards Improved Farm Structures and Rural Land Market Functioning: Policy Options Based on Lessons from European Experience
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-07-14) van Holst, Frank
    Most transition countries in Central and Eastern Europe face enormous challenges in developing a viable land structure. Due to restitution processes and socially engaged policies of privatization, wide spread land fragmentation is present. The situation in Armenia is comparable with many other countries in the region. Privatization was mainly done in the 1990s but continues until now as state and public land still represent a relatively large share of agricultural land. Figures of Armenia over the last 20 years illustrate minimal change in average farm and plot size. This outline is based on review and analysis of available data and a visit to Armenia in June 2017. It aims to contribute to selecting the policy options and setting the preconditions in Armenia needed to get a well-functioning rural land market to enlarge farms and to reduce fragmentation. As shown in this report, experience in the region is still limited which made it necessary and relevant to refer to experience in Western European countries. Options are not limited to land consolidation but include improved management of state land, land banking, agricultural lease regulation and some other supporting measures. The analysis conducted for this report draws on data collected from the Agricultural Census data of 2014 and data from the Real property cadastre. Qualitative data are based on several reports, presentations and interviews with experts and policy makers listed in the annex. Although further analysis is needed, it is clear that the current situation provides a serious risk for the agricultural sector which jeopardises the impact of any support to the sector. While Western European countries could organically adapt and support the sector to changing market conditions since the 1950s, the situation in Armenia (and other countries in the region) requires a set of measures which is unprecedented in its scale and intensity to speed up this process.
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    India - Unlocking Agribusiness for Inclusive Growth, Jobs, and More: Policy and Investment Priorities
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-07-01) World Bank Group
    Major changes are occurring in the Indian economy that should inform public policy and investments in the food sector. The main drivers of changes occurring in the Indian economy include rising per capita incomes and urbanization. These patterns have led to increased demand for food and food services, including postharvest management activities, food retailing, and restaurants. Aggregate demand for food has increased, and consumption patterns are shifting toward fresh fruits and vegetables, processed foods, and ready-to-eat foods and meals. To meet the emerging demand, farmers need to respond by not only diversifying production toward foods with increasing demand but also with postharvest management. The objective of this report is to identify policy and investment priorities in agribusiness to stimulate inclusive growth and jobs. The study ultimately seeks to inform strategic dialogue between the government of India and the World Bank Group toward investments in postharvest management and other segments of agribusiness. The report provides building blocks to identify priorities for policy and investment. After a brief introduction (chapter 1), chapter 2 presents a framework to understand the role of agribusiness in development. Chapter 3 provides estimates of productivity and capital investment gaps in various subsectors of agribusiness and simulates the effects of bridging those gaps on macroeconomic indicators, sectoral growth, and jobs. Chapter 4 provides lessons on using agribusiness to improve nutrition. Chapter 5 provides lessons on promoting cold chain development. Chapter 6 provides lessons on promoting agroprocessing. Chapter 7 provides lessons on promoting inclusive value chains for modern food retailing. Finally, chapter 8 provides policy and investment priorities in agribusiness based on the main findings of the report.
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    Agriculture for Jobs and Growth in the Western Balkans: A Regional Report
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-06) World Bank
    The agri-food industry, comprising agricultural inputs, primary agricultural production, off-farm food processing, food distribution, food retail and consumption, and other food-related services, is one of the most important industries in the Western Balkans in terms of turnover, jobs and geographic scale. Average turnover of the agri-food industry accounts for 24 percent of total manufacturing turnover in the Western Balkan (WB) region compared to the European Union (EU) average of 15 percent (in 2011) and it is more evenly distributed geographically than other industries. Global evidence suggests that agribusiness has the highest short-term indirect employment impact, where creating one job generates more than double the number of jobs in the rest of the economy. The sector’s broad geographic footprint, multiple functions and cross-sector linkages could transform the industry into a powerful driver of value addition, income diversification and innovation in rural areas. The objective of this regional study is to examine how further investment, modernization and transformation of the agriculture and rural economy can contribute to job creation and economic growth in the Western Balkans, while highlighting how better public policies and deeper European integration can help take this process forward. The study aims to better understand the features of agri-food employment in the region, including its potential to generate more, better and more inclusive jobs and to identify transformative (policy) actions that could trigger a structural change towards a more productive use of human and other resources in agriculture.
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    Sustainable, Inclusive Agriculture Sector Growth in Armenia: Lessons from Recent Experience of Growth and Contraction
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-05) Christensen, Garry
    This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) for Armenia has been prepared with the aim to identify key challenges and opportunities to advance the twin goals of ending absolute poverty and boosting shared prosperity. The review of Armenia’s agriculture sector forms part of this background material. Following an overview of the sector’s major characteristics, the study analyses the determinants of agriculture sector growth from 2004-2015, a period characterized by both expansion and contraction. The links between this growth and employment creation are then considered, followed by review of the inclusiveness of observed sector growth. Agriculture sector resilience to exogenous shocks is also examined, at both sector and household level. The study concludes by assessing the implications of the analysis for the four original hypotheses
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    Zambia Jobs in Value Chains: Opportunities in Agribusiness
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017) Krishnan, Sudha Bala ; Peterburs, Teresa
    This study analyzes from a jobs perspective two high potential value chains (VCs) in Zambia’s agribusiness sector poultry and aquaculture. With more than 50 percent of workers and over 80 percent of poor Zambians recording themselves in agriculture in the 2010 population census, raising agricultural productivity is a determinant to reduce poverty. Yet small-scale farmers (SSFs) and modern commercial operations in large farms exist in parallel, as SSFs typically use backward production systems with scant capitalization. Zambia’s challenge is to overcome the persistent disconnect between low productivity smallholder agriculture and high productivity modern agribusiness firms. Developing market linkages will enable the agribusiness sector to meet the growing urban demand for food products, while connecting more people to jobs.