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PublicationNigeria Transforming Agribusiness for Inclusive Recovery, Jobs Creation, and Poverty Reduction: Policy Reforms and Investment Priorities(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-30) Mghenyi, Elliot W.; Dankers, Cora; Thurlow, James; Anyiro, ChidozieModern economic policy making in Nigeria has placed enormous emphasis on diversification of the economy to non-oil productive sectors. With the aim to restore economic growth following the 2015-16 recession and lay the foundations for long-term structural change, the economic growth and recovery plan (ERGP) recognized the need to diversify the economy to non-oil productive sectors such as agriculture and agro-allied industries, in order to build an economy that can generate inclusive growth and create jobs. This report aims to improve understanding of the potential of the agribusiness sector (primary agriculture plus off-farm agribusiness) to accelerate inclusive recovery from the 2020 recession, create jobs, and reduce poverty. A key early finding of the report is that the agribusiness sector is critical to accelerating inclusive recovery and creating jobs. The report builds on this evidence to identify the specific value chain groups that have most potential to create jobs, reduce poverty, and improve nutrition outcomes. Next, the report offers to highlight the complex set of factors that mediate the performance of agricultural value chains, distinguishing between issues that pertain to upstream primary agriculture, those that affect downstream off-farm agribusiness and cross-cutting challenges. The agribusiness enabling environment takes center stage in this part of the report, focusing on policy reforms around seed regulations, fertilizers quality control, warehouse receipts, and agricultural trade. Finally, the report takes deep dives to identify reforms to increase competitiveness in the value chains that were found to have the most potential to create jobs, reduce poverty, and improve nutrition outcomes. PublicationRegional Risks to Agriculture in West Africa: Agricultural Risk Impacts, Management Measures, and Financing Mechanisms Through a Regional Lens(Washington, DC, 2020-12-31) World BankAgriculture is an increasingly risky business in much of the world, including the West African region. The World Bank has developed an Agricultural Risk Management (ARM) framework that assesses risks in systemic production, markets, and enabling environments to understand their total sectoral impacts and to prioritize them. Prioritizing risks improves targeting of risk management measures so that scarce resources can be allocated where they have the most impact. It also helps identify how to align other agriculture, environment, and social protection policies to manage existing risks. These risks are usually identified and managed at national levels, and the three key types are production risks, market risks, and enabling environment risks. This report focuses on how West African countries can benefit from collaboration in managing agrifood system risks and on the resulting need to adapt a regional lens to the ARM framework. Since both crop-specific growing areas and the risks they face often span national borders, there are substantial advantages that can be gained by stronger collaboration. There is a need to build layered approaches to manage risk that combine risk-mitigating, risk-transfer, and risk-coping instruments. These risk management approaches are needed within countries, with regional approaches building on national efforts. This report provides a foundational analysis to begin identifying needed actions for West African countries and at regional levels. PublicationStrengthening Higher Agricultural Education in Africa(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06-27) World BankOver the last decade African governments’ and regional economic organizations have increasingly recognized the need to reshape higher agricultural education to meet the changing needs of the agri-food sector. There is a strong appetite for change but a need for a better understanding of the challenges that universities face in transforming into institutions that can be more dynamic and responsive, especially to the needs of the private sector, that is more relevant by the public sector and meet the rapidly growing demand for university places. The study is being prepared at a time when the World Bank along with other development partners are considering possible approaches to address these challenges. It follows regional dialogue on this theme in Africa in recent years involving African governments, regional agro-innovation and education networks including Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM), under the umbrella of the African Union Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Program. (CAADP). The study is structured as follows: section two describes the role of higher agricultural education in the wider agro-innovation system and the means through which higher education can drive transformation of the agri-food sector and economic development in Africa; section three describes global trends in agriculture that will drive changes in employers’ knowledge and skills needs; section four describes the implications of these trends for skill and knowledge needs; section five describes the core challenges that universities face in transforming to be more responsive to needs; and the final section six provides recommendations on reforms and investments to strengthen higher education in Africa. PublicationSouth Sudan: Linking the Agriculture and Food Sector to the Job Creation Agenda(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2019-06) World BankThis report seeks to support the larger jobs study by examining how investment in South Sudan’s food sector can not only address food security needs, it can generate income and lay the foundation for livelihood and job creation in the country. It argues that applying a value chain lens to investments in the sector can contribute to creating direct, indirect, and induced labor in the food system. The goal is to move the country from a dependency on humanitarian aid to building recovery and resilience in the short term in a way that can produce stable jobs over the medium to long term. More specifically, it looks at the potential technology and organizational arrangements that investment programs can start supporting now to stimulate value chain development for increased economic activity and job creation. The assumption is that significant donor support will still be necessary for the short to medium term to support investments in reconstruction and food security. As security spreads, public sector capacity to support development can grow, private actors can establish or expand their operations, and the donor community can begin to disengage, addressing only the neediest communities while development organizations continue to work with the public and private sector actors to support development and economic transformation. PublicationZambia Jobs in Value Chains: Opportunities in Agribusiness(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017) Krishnan, Sudha Bala; Peterburs, TeresaThis study analyzes from a jobs perspective two high potential value chains (VCs) in Zambia’s agribusiness sector poultry and aquaculture. With more than 50 percent of workers and over 80 percent of poor Zambians recording themselves in agriculture in the 2010 population census, raising agricultural productivity is a determinant to reduce poverty. Yet small-scale farmers (SSFs) and modern commercial operations in large farms exist in parallel, as SSFs typically use backward production systems with scant capitalization. Zambia’s challenge is to overcome the persistent disconnect between low productivity smallholder agriculture and high productivity modern agribusiness firms. Developing market linkages will enable the agribusiness sector to meet the growing urban demand for food products, while connecting more people to jobs. PublicationLinking Women with Agribusiness in Zambia: Corporate Social Responsibility, Creating Shared Value, and Human Rights Approaches(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2015-06) White, Pamela; Finnegan, Gerry; Pehu, Eija; Poutiainen, Pirkko; Vyzaki, MarialenaThree of sub-Saharan Africa’s central economic realities motivate this study. First, agriculture is the most important sector in most African economies, on average accounting for nearly one-fourth of GDP. Second, the private sector is increasingly active in transforming African agriculture and economies. By 2030, agriculture and agribusiness are anticipated to become a US$ 1 trillion industry in Africa, delivering more jobs, income, and economic growth. Third, women make up half of sub- Saharan Africa’s agricultural labor force on average (and two-thirds or more in some countries). Yet women’s strong presence in agriculture belies the comparatively weak commercial benefits they derive from it. Throughout Africa, women struggle to enter and operate highly productive and profitable agricultural enterprises. Their plots of land tend to be smaller, their crops less remunerative, and their access to land, inputs, and finance far more restricted and precarious than men’s. Africa boasts the highest share of ‘entrepreneurs,’ but these women are disproportionately concentrated in the ranks of the self-employed rather than among the employers. Women’s productivity is lower than men’s, not because they are women, but because informal, smaller firms are inherently less productive, and more women operate these types of enterprises. The real challenge in expanding opportunities and empowering women is not to help more women to become small-scale, informal entrepreneurs but to enable them to shift to activities capable of delivering higher returns and employing others. PublicationBusiness and Livelihoods in African Livestock : Investments to Overcome Information Gaps(Washington, DC, 2014-02) World BankThis paper investigates how the development of the livestock sector can contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction in the continent, with the ultimate objective of identifying major information gaps critical to designing and implementing successful livestock sector policies and investments. As a first step, the paper presents an analysis of African consumption of animal-source foods. This is rapidly growing and is forecast to continue doing so. It therefore provides opportunities for demand-led growth. This focus is distinct from the more traditional, production-oriented entry point. To understand opportunities for poverty reduction, this paper reviews both the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of African markets for livestock products, in this case animal-source foods. Second, rather than exploring production and productivity constraints, which are known to a large extent, the paper focuses on the incentives that rural households have to invest in their livestock to overcome those constraints. Indeed, farmers often fail to adopt readily available technologies. To analyze incentives, the paper reviews two intertwined dimensions of households' livestock activities, namely herd and flock size and livestock-derived income. The paper concludes by identifying investment priorities for improving the quantity and quality of livestock information so that decision makers will be better able to formulate and implement investments in the livestock sector that effectively contribute to economic growth and poverty reduction. PublicationAgribusiness Indicators: Nigeria(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014) World Bank GroupThe purpose of this Agriculture Business Indicators Study was to isolate the success factors and construct indicators that reflect the performance of the agriculture sector in Nigeria and that benchmark it in terms directly comparable to agriculture sectors in other developing countries. Providing policy makers and public officials with access to this type of empirical information is seen as way to stimulate and inform policy dialogue about what reforms are needed and about how scarce public resources can be most effectively invested. The indicators can be used to identify specifically where this investment can be used to leverage commercialization through value addition, increasing the competitiveness of a country’s agricultural products domestically, regionally, and in international markets. They can also inform decision makers and investors about which policy measures are likely to be the most effective in enhancing food security, reducing poverty, and encouraging sustainable forms of environmental management. To accelerate agricultural development capable of spurring competitiveness of agricultural products in the domestic, regional, and international markets and could enhance food security; poverty reduction and sustainable environmental management. The study entailed a review of existing literature and the use of informal surveys to obtain information from a variety of stakeholders and actors. The focus was on the key success factors that the Agribusiness Indicators (ABI) team determined to be the most critical factors influencing agribusiness development in Sub-Saharan African countries. The Nigeria study was informed by the outcomes of scoping missions which had been conducted in three initial pilot countries: Ghana, Ethiopia and Mozambique. PublicationAgricultural Sector Risk Assessment in Niger : Moving from Crisis Response to Long-Term Risk Management(Washington, DC, 2013) World BankNiger, owing to its climatic, institutional, livelihood, economic, and environmental context, is one of the most vulnerable countries of the world. Poverty is pervasive in Niger and it ranks low on almost all the human development indicators. Agriculture is the most important sector of Niger's economy and accounts for over 40 percent of national gross domestic product (GDP) and is the principle source of livelihood for over 80 percent of the country's population. The performance of the agricultural sector, however, due to its high exposure to risks, is very volatile. Niger has experienced multiple shocks, largely induced by agricultural risks over the past 30 years, which impose high welfare cost in terms of food availability, food affordability, and malnutrition. It also adversely affects household incomes, performance of the agricultural sector, the government's fiscal balance, and the growth rate of Niger's economy. Niger is a case of living perpetually with risk, thus more emphasis on long-term structural solutions, rather than short-term quick fixes, is required to improve the resilience of the agricultural sector. Designing and implementing a comprehensive agricultural risk management strategy will require sustained and substantial financial investments, shifting the focus from short-term crisis response to long-term risk management, streamlining disparate donor investments and isolated interventions toward the core problem, supporting decentralized community, and farm-level decision making, integrating agricultural risk management into the existing development frameworks, prioritizing agricultural risks into government and donor strategies, and focusing on implementation. PublicationWhat are Livestock Indicators?(Washington, DC, 2012-10) World BankIn the development community indicator is a term more frequently used than 'statistic', as it attracts more attention from potential users, including decision-makers and the media. Indicators transform and communicate data. Data are pieces of information that are either directly observed and collected (primary data) or retrieved from other sources (secondary data), and then processed through appropriate methodologies to produce indicators. Simple indicators are aggregations of data standardized by some time, space, and or other dimensions. Examples for livestock include the number of cattle in a country on a given day; the average number of animals affected by a disease in a given country each year; or the value of live animals exported from a country in a given year. Livestock-related indicators are used for a range of purposes, including analyses of sectors' or value chains' performance, monitoring and evaluation of interventions in the form of policies, programs and projects, and comparisons between countries and sectors. Decision-makers look at indicators from three main perspectives: level of the indicator, showing its status; dispersion or concentration of the indicator, which represents the variability of its status; and trends in the indicator over time, space, or other progressions relevant to the decision being made.