Other Agriculture Study

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    Green Growth in North Macedonia‘s Agriculture Sector
    (Washington, DC, 2023-03-23) World Bank
    This report focuses on the agri-food sector in North Macedonia and investigates the potential and necessary actions for adopting a green growth trajectory. Agri-food is a key sector in need of transformation to achieve green growth in the country. The sector has great economic importance, and it is vulnerable to climate change and other environmental risks, which will compound current sector inefficiencies, including declining competitiveness. This report aims to assess: (i) the actions needed to re-focus agricultural support priorities in a manner that reflects green growth ambitions; (ii) policy financing implications; and (iii) the availability and capacity of effective policy implementation mechanisms. Finally, the potential impacts of greening agriculture support on farm efficiency are assessed and discussed.
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    Digital Climate Information and Agriculture Advisory Delivery Mechanisms in West Africa
    (Washington, DC, 2023-03-21) World Bank
    By advancing knowledge on digital climate information and agriculture advisory services (‘agromet services’) in support of West Africa’s farmers, this report has two objectives. First, it aims to identify priority actions for promoting digital agromet services under the West Africa Food System Resilience Program (FSRP) with a focus on Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Niger, and Togo. Second, the report strives to provide insights on the required ingredients for creating viable agromet delivery models to all stakeholders involved in the production and dissemination of weather and climate information. These stakeholders include representatives from the Ministries of Agriculture (MOAs), National Meteorological Services (NMSs), Disaster Risk Management (DRM) specialists, interested parties from the private sector and civil society, and development practitioners. This report’s findings were obtained through i) a benchmarking analysis of ten case studies examining existing delivery mechanisms of digital agromet services, and ii) semi-structured interviews with public institutions complemented by desk research. Case study results indicate that providers of agromet services should bundle different service types and diversify revenue streams to ensure that their offerings are impactful and viable. The report also finds that increasing levels of trust between the public and the private sector would facilitate the creation of innovative climate information delivery models based on public-private engagement (PPE). Other key recommendations to enhance agromet services include continuing to invest in the technical and human capacity of the region’s NMSs, increasing collaboration between NMSs and agricultural extension services, and establishing clear regulatory frameworks on digitalization and open data.
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    Spearheading Vietnam’s Green Agricultural Transformation: Moving to Low-Carbon Rice
    (Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank
    This report focuses on promoting low-carbon rice production systems in Vietnam. There are many sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the agricultural sector in Vietnam, including along value chains and within the whole agri-food context. However, because rice production is so important to the country and to emission reductions in agriculture, this report focuses on known actions that can be rapidly upscaled, along with other complementary actions to reduce GHG emissions from rice production systems. The report covers emission reduction pathways in rice. This report assesses agronomic and other options that offer technically and economically feasible pathways to promote low-carbon rice. Some options have been piloted in Vietnam and require significant upscaling at the farm-level. This report considers challenges and practical actions and policy reforms to address these challenges for Vietnam’s low-carbon transition (LCT) in rice.
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    Ukraine: Building Climate Resilience in Agriculture and Forestry
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-12) World Bank
    Ukraine has made impressive progress on key reforms and restored macro-financial stability, but weak growth and poverty remain a concern. Despite these economic challenges, Ukraine recognizes climate change as the most consequential factor this century, affecting the economy and future generations. This study is the first detailed assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on Ukraine, with a focus on agriculture, a key driver of the economy and jobs. The analysis provides an insight into the spatial dimension of climate change, how these changes would be experienced in different oblasts in the country. This report is supported by four background technical reports on climate projections, impact on agriculture, impact on forests and distributional analysis. In addition, climate datasets of over two terabytes generated for this assessment are housed at the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Institute, Kyiv. The results of this study are expected to inform Ukraine’s national adaptation strategy, which is now being finalized. This study also paves the way for the development of sub-national and sectoral adaptation strategies with the spatially disaggregated information that has been generated for all oblasts.
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    Realizing Scale in Smallholder-Based Agriculture: Policy Options for the Philippines
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06) World Bank
    In recent decades, the agriculture and fisheries sector in the Philippines has grown but has clearly not lived up to its potential. Philippine agriculture has weathered the impact of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic better than the overall national economy. Recent government reports highlight the difficulty of modernizing Philippine agriculture under circumstances in which farmland is continuously fragmented, institutional arrangements for farm-to-market coordination and distribution are underdeveloped, and large parts of the food economy experience significant logistical bottlenecks and costs. This report combines results from three activities undertaken from mid-2020 to the first months of 2021. This report has five chapters. Chapter 2 reviews recent policy developments and some current priorities of the Department of Agriculture (DA). Chapter 3 describes the spatial analysis, highlighting the differences in agriculture’s transformative potential in different regions of the country. Given that spatial strategies are a relatively new departure in Philippine agriculture, Chapter 4 draws on experience at the national and subnational levels of other Asian countries to derive positive lessons for implementing them in the Philippines.
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    Sustainable Lowland Agriculture Development in Indonesia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-02-01) World Bank
    For Indonesia's agricultural sector to continue to make a significant sustainable social and economic contribution, it will need to undergo a transformation. While the contribution of Indonesia's agriculture sector to national gross domestic product (13 percent) has declined greatly over the past three decades, it is still significant, ranking in third place in 2019 after the oil and gas processing sector (20 percent) and the non-oil and gas processing sector (18 percent). To ensure continued contribution of this sector, the Indonesian government has implemented a number of strategies and measures, including REDD+,1 low carbon development, Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) action plans, and green growth strategies. However, despite these efforts, performance in terms of environmental sustainability indicators and contributions to smallholders' livelihoods, particularly in lowland areas, is still suboptimal. Indonesia's lowland areas, in particular, have significant potential to contribute to increased agricultural production, especially in the case of rice, but also for a range of other food and non-food commodities. Indonesia's lowlands cover about 20 percent of Indonesia's total area of which about half are peatlands. Most of this area is found on Indonesia's three largest islands (Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Papua) amounting to 33.7 million hectares, or about 25 percent of the total land area of these islands (World Bank 2018). Indonesia has the largest area of tropical peatlands of any nation, of which more than 90 percent are distributed in the lowland areas of these three islands. However, lowlands are also of great importance for biodiversity, including mangroves, peat swamp forest and freshwater swamp forest with their specific flora and fauna. Despite the significance of lowland agriculture for the achievement of higher levels of national economic growth and environmental sustainability and for improving rural livelihoods in Indonesia, lowland agriculture must overcome several challenges if it is to realize its full potential.
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    Agricultural Land Use and Sustainable Livelihoods in the Mekong Delta: Alternative Scenarios and Policy Implications
    (Washington, DC, 2021) World Bank
    The Mekong Delta (MKD) is Vietnam’s most productive agricultural region, and its agroeconomy is well integrated into international markets. Nevertheless, there are increasing threats to the MKD’s agricultural achievements, and other serious questions are emerging about the sustainability of many of the prevailing production systems. Sea level rise, caused by climate change, is increasingly threatening the viability of once protected cropping systems in the coastal areas. This study seeks to contribute to the planning effort for the MKD by addressing some analytical gaps, especially around the technical feasibility and socioeconomic characteristics of alternative agricultural production systems in the context of the evolving natural conditions in the region, and more specifically in the MKD’s three subregions (that is, Upper, Middle, and Coastal). The primary purpose of the study is to fill in that gap by reviewing and assessing different livelihood models and land-use scenarios in the MKD using multi-criteria of technical feasibly, climate change, environmental adaptability, economic and financial, and social aspects to inform the ongoing agricultural transformation in the MKD.
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    Regional Risks to Agriculture in West Africa: Agricultural Risk Impacts, Management Measures, and Financing Mechanisms Through a Regional Lens
    (Washington, DC, 2020-12-31) World Bank
    Agriculture is an increasingly risky business in much of the world, including the West African region. The World Bank has developed an Agricultural Risk Management (ARM) framework that assesses risks in systemic production, markets, and enabling environments to understand their total sectoral impacts and to prioritize them. Prioritizing risks improves targeting of risk management measures so that scarce resources can be allocated where they have the most impact. It also helps identify how to align other agriculture, environment, and social protection policies to manage existing risks. These risks are usually identified and managed at national levels, and the three key types are production risks, market risks, and enabling environment risks. This report focuses on how West African countries can benefit from collaboration in managing agrifood system risks and on the resulting need to adapt a regional lens to the ARM framework. Since both crop-specific growing areas and the risks they face often span national borders, there are substantial advantages that can be gained by stronger collaboration. There is a need to build layered approaches to manage risk that combine risk-mitigating, risk-transfer, and risk-coping instruments. These risk management approaches are needed within countries, with regional approaches building on national efforts. This report provides a foundational analysis to begin identifying needed actions for West African countries and at regional levels.
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    Indonesia Agro-Value Chain Assessment: Issues and Options in Promoting Digital Agriculture
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06-23) World Bank
    This background paper aims to provide an assessment of the issues and options in promoting digital agriculture in Indonesia, within the broader technology landscape of the country, with the primary aim of informing the design of the proposed World Bank investment project. The study considers global best practices as well as the status of Indonesia in product traceability, e-commerce, agriculture fintech service providers, weather index insurance providers, and precision farming technology providers. Although digital agriculture is cross-cutting across all commodities, the focus was on the horticulture and small ruminant value chains as those were identified as priority commodity categories by the Ministry of Agriculture. The study also offers high-level recommendations for policymakers on reforms and programs that can accelerate the adoption of digital agriculture. In the first section, the national context and the importance of ICT technology in agriculture are summarized. Section two presents the current landscape of digital agriculture in Indonesia, followed by section three that suggests key areas where ICT can play a role in agriculture, based on global experience. As scaling up the digitization of the agriculture sector involves a complex set of policy, investment, innovation, and capacity-building measures, several high-level recommendations are provided for policymakers and practitioners in the fourth and last section.
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    An Exploratory Overview of Agriculture Finance in Indonesia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06-19) World Bank
    The Government of Indonesia is aiming to diversify the country’s food system by developing and strengthening high-value-added and more nutrient-rich value chains. In this regard, the government is focusing on diversifying into horticulture and small ruminant livestock. Undertaking Value Chain Analysis (VCA) is a critical part of this process as it helps in the identification of constraints and opportunities in relevant sectors. Agriculture funding and finance are vital components of this analytical process. This report presents a preliminary overview of opportunities and constraints as well as areas for future interventions. The analysis is based on a World Bank and FAO scoping mission to Indonesia that took place between March 2 - March 13, 2020. This report focuses on the supply-side of capital. The key findings suggest that supply-side constraints are minimal. The liquidity in Indonesia’s banking system is enough and there already exist extensive physical banking networks within the country. The Indonesian banking networks include a selection of commercial and specialized banks, membership-based groups, and fintech organizations. Also, there exist several large food manufacturers that could potentially aid in the process of financing and the creation of linkages through vertical integration of value chains. The Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) in the food and agriculture sectors have been growing strongly, and they can act as accelerators and facilitate the process. The Indonesian government is supporting the development of value chains and has been actively promoting the creation of farmer organizations to aid the process. Lastly, there exists a demand for the creation of a blended finance facility that could help amplify the effects of the value chain projects, and the Tropical Landscapes Finance Facility (TLFF) is a proof of such a concept that is working well in Indonesia.