Other Agriculture Study

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  • Publication
    Myanmar: Compounding Food Security Challenges
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-12-21) World Bank
    This report is a product of the World Bank's monitoring efforts in Myanmar and provides an in-depth look at the country’s agricultural sector and food security status. This study examines intertwined challenges, falling crop yields, escalating food costs, deteriorating dietary habits, changing income sources, and shifting labor dynamics among farmers. In doing so, this analysis aims to illuminate the complex dynamics affecting households and communities nationwide. It offers essential insights for stakeholders seeking to address these pressing issues.
  • Publication
    Thailand Rural Income Diagnostic: Challenges and Opportunities for Rural Farmers
    (Washington, DC, 2022-10) World Bank
    This report applies the framework to diagnose the opportunities and constraints faced by the rural economy and households and to assess policy options to address these constraints. The approach builds on four steps. The first step consists in examining the socio-demographic profile and living conditions of rural households. The second step assesses opportunities to increase the income of rural households. The third step investigates the key constraints preventing rural households from taking advantage of these opportunities and explores the sequencing and overlap of the constraints. The final step examines the feasible policy actions that would help rural households overcome the key constraints to increasing their income. Details are provided in Figure 9. The analysis selects the key constraints that prevent households from taking advantage of identified opportunities. Prioritization of constraints requires assessing the likely benefits of pursuing the opportunities compared against the costs of relaxing the constraints. There are four criteria suggested by Hill (2018) that are used to identify the priority constraints that need to be address: (1) the constraint limits several important sources of income; (2) strength of evidence that addressing the constraint will help income growth, (3) the constraint has a stronger impact on poorer households or regions, and (4) existing evidence on the need to address the constraint first before other constraints can be addressed. Potential feasible policy solutions are suggested to the prioritized constraints. The potential for the policy solutions to address the constraints, their feasibility, and the size and breadth of their impact is graded based on the review of evidence and discussion with experts and stakeholders operating in the field.
  • Publication
    Toward a Greener China: A Review of Recent Agricultural Support Policies and Public Expenditures
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022) World Bank
    In recent decades, the Chinese government has placed great importance on developing agriculture and rural areas, adopting policies, and increasing public expenditures targeting these. China’s agricultural policies and support mechanisms have evolved, responding to emerging challenges and reflecting shifts in broader national policy and strategic efforts. These interventions had a modest impact on grain production and provided a more significant boost to rural incomes yet gave rise to significant market distortions and unintended consequences. The composition and patterns of public expenditures for agriculture reflect this dynamic evolution and changing priorities concerning the development of China’s agriculture and rural areas. This report analyses in some depth the changing scale and structure of pertinent public expenditures and briefly synthesizes the available evidence regarding the efficacy of certain expenditures (and the policies to which they are connected). Among the major observations made in the report regarding agriculture-related public expenditures are the following: first, the central and local governments have allocated considerable resources over the past two decades to support agricultural and rural development. Second, the composition of public expenditure classified as agriculture, forestry, and water conservancy (AFW) has changed dramatically in recent years. Third, the public expenditure involving direct support for agriculture peaked in 2015 and has since declined, while public expenditure on general support services has increased and diversified. Fourth, public eco-environmental expenditures have increased considerably and taken on a wide range of different forms. Finally, spatial differences in public expenditures supporting AFW and green agricultural development are worth noting and require additional attention, given the increasing dominance of local governments in delivering agricultural programs and investments.
  • Publication
    Spearheading Vietnam’s Green Agricultural Transformation: Moving to Low-Carbon Rice
    (Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank
    This report focuses on promoting low-carbon rice production systems in Vietnam. There are many sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the agricultural sector in Vietnam, including along value chains and within the whole agri-food context. However, because rice production is so important to the country and to emission reductions in agriculture, this report focuses on known actions that can be rapidly upscaled, along with other complementary actions to reduce GHG emissions from rice production systems. The report covers emission reduction pathways in rice. This report assesses agronomic and other options that offer technically and economically feasible pathways to promote low-carbon rice. Some options have been piloted in Vietnam and require significant upscaling at the farm-level. This report considers challenges and practical actions and policy reforms to address these challenges for Vietnam’s low-carbon transition (LCT) in rice.
  • Publication
    Realizing Scale in Smallholder-Based Agriculture: Policy Options for the Philippines
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06) World Bank
    In recent decades, the agriculture and fisheries sector in the Philippines has grown but has clearly not lived up to its potential. Philippine agriculture has weathered the impact of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic better than the overall national economy. Recent government reports highlight the difficulty of modernizing Philippine agriculture under circumstances in which farmland is continuously fragmented, institutional arrangements for farm-to-market coordination and distribution are underdeveloped, and large parts of the food economy experience significant logistical bottlenecks and costs. This report combines results from three activities undertaken from mid-2020 to the first months of 2021. This report has five chapters. Chapter 2 reviews recent policy developments and some current priorities of the Department of Agriculture (DA). Chapter 3 describes the spatial analysis, highlighting the differences in agriculture’s transformative potential in different regions of the country. Given that spatial strategies are a relatively new departure in Philippine agriculture, Chapter 4 draws on experience at the national and subnational levels of other Asian countries to derive positive lessons for implementing them in the Philippines.
  • Publication
    Sustainable Lowland Agriculture Development in Indonesia
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-02-01) World Bank
    For Indonesia's agricultural sector to continue to make a significant sustainable social and economic contribution, it will need to undergo a transformation. While the contribution of Indonesia's agriculture sector to national gross domestic product (13 percent) has declined greatly over the past three decades, it is still significant, ranking in third place in 2019 after the oil and gas processing sector (20 percent) and the non-oil and gas processing sector (18 percent). To ensure continued contribution of this sector, the Indonesian government has implemented a number of strategies and measures, including REDD+,1 low carbon development, Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) action plans, and green growth strategies. However, despite these efforts, performance in terms of environmental sustainability indicators and contributions to smallholders' livelihoods, particularly in lowland areas, is still suboptimal. Indonesia's lowland areas, in particular, have significant potential to contribute to increased agricultural production, especially in the case of rice, but also for a range of other food and non-food commodities. Indonesia's lowlands cover about 20 percent of Indonesia's total area of which about half are peatlands. Most of this area is found on Indonesia's three largest islands (Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Papua) amounting to 33.7 million hectares, or about 25 percent of the total land area of these islands (World Bank 2018). Indonesia has the largest area of tropical peatlands of any nation, of which more than 90 percent are distributed in the lowland areas of these three islands. However, lowlands are also of great importance for biodiversity, including mangroves, peat swamp forest and freshwater swamp forest with their specific flora and fauna. Despite the significance of lowland agriculture for the achievement of higher levels of national economic growth and environmental sustainability and for improving rural livelihoods in Indonesia, lowland agriculture must overcome several challenges if it is to realize its full potential.
  • Publication
    Improving Governance of Indonesia's Peatlands and Other Lowland Ecosystems
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-02-01) World Bank
    The report aims to advance a policy dialogue on how to address sustainability challenges from lowland developments. The specific approach discussed in this report is the "landscape approach" which, in turn, calls for improved "landscape governance." As a technical background study, the report serves four functions. First, it summarizes the principles of a landscape approach, elaborated in the context of Indonesia's lowlands through two previous technical studies. Second, it takes stock of current governance challenges in Indonesia's lowlands, focusing on those related to the government sector, and discusses how these challenges currently prevent a landscape approach from being implemented in Indonesia's lowlands. Third, it reviews Indonesia's recent efforts to address the governance challenges in the management of peatlands and other lowland ecosystems. Fourth, it offers recommendations on options to improve lowland governance in order to shift toward integrated management of Indonesia's lowlands based on a landscape approach.The report focuses on the lowland areas in eight fire-prone provinces, and on key landscape governance issues related to peatlands. Indonesia suffered many years of repeated fires and haze crises, with landmark events in 1982/83, 1997/98, 2002, 2006, 2009, and 2015. The 2015 El Niño-driven fires were particularly extensive and costly. Almost 80 percent of the 2015–16 fires occurred within the lowland areas in eight fire-prone provinces—Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Jambi, Papua, Riau, South Kalimantan, South Sumatra, and West Kalimantan—which together account for 87 percent of lowland areas nationally. The report highlights the importance of sustainable landscape management of lowland areas, particularly of the peatlands within lowland boundaries, for achieving the Government of Indonesia’s objective in preventing land and forest fires.
  • Publication
    Markham/Ramu Agricultural Growth Corridor: A Possible Path of Transformational Agricultural Development
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021) International Finance Corporation
    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in investments from the government, development partners and the private sector in integrated development/growth corridors and other spatial development initiatives, where coordinated investments in transport infrastructure, power, communications and markets are expected to create conditions to unleash Papua New Guinea’s undoubted agricultural potential. Growth corridor strategies are increasingly invoked to coordinate public and private investment around strategic backbone infrastructure in developing countries. Investments in soft and hard infrastructure to promote investment in processing zones or out-grower schemes and facilitate multi-stakeholder dialogue aim to overcome coordination failures and bottlenecks related to market linkages or producer-relations to secure supply chains. This paper discusses the model of growth corridors as a tool for inclusive agricultural development in Papua New Guinea. It provides corridor and other spatial development approaches in terms of i) their geographical scope, ii) their objectives and iii) their governance mechanisms, the driving force behind the corridor initiative. Finally, it analyzes the potential and the needs of how the Markham and Ramu valleys can be a role model for an agricultural transformation in Papua New Guinea.
  • Publication
    Agricultural Land Use and Sustainable Livelihoods in the Mekong Delta: Alternative Scenarios and Policy Implications
    (Washington, DC, 2021) World Bank
    The Mekong Delta (MKD) is Vietnam’s most productive agricultural region, and its agroeconomy is well integrated into international markets. Nevertheless, there are increasing threats to the MKD’s agricultural achievements, and other serious questions are emerging about the sustainability of many of the prevailing production systems. Sea level rise, caused by climate change, is increasingly threatening the viability of once protected cropping systems in the coastal areas. This study seeks to contribute to the planning effort for the MKD by addressing some analytical gaps, especially around the technical feasibility and socioeconomic characteristics of alternative agricultural production systems in the context of the evolving natural conditions in the region, and more specifically in the MKD’s three subregions (that is, Upper, Middle, and Coastal). The primary purpose of the study is to fill in that gap by reviewing and assessing different livelihood models and land-use scenarios in the MKD using multi-criteria of technical feasibly, climate change, environmental adaptability, economic and financial, and social aspects to inform the ongoing agricultural transformation in the MKD.
  • Publication
    Vietnam: Food Smart Country Diagnostic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-09-28) World Bank
    The term food smart refers to a food system that is efficient, meets the food needs of a country, and is environmentally sustainable. Reducing food loss and waste (FLW) is one of the critical pillars to build a smart food system. This diagnostic focuses on the FLW pillar, from farm to fork to landfill, with the objective of alerting policymakers to the role that addressing food loss and waste can play in meeting their various global and national policycommitments.