Other Agriculture Study

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    Sindh’s Livestock: Getting to Know an Important but Neglected Sector
    (Washington, DC, 2022-05) Bellinguez, Alban ; Menon, Javed
    The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive landscaping review of the livestock sub-sector in Sindh, as well as an analysis of past and ongoing interventions and lessons learned, to identify possible opportunities for supporting private sector-driven growth of the livestock sub-sector to ultimately achieve the 3 objectives of inclusive, competitive, and green development of livestock value chains. The main sources of information were the available bibliography as well as interviews with stakeholders. alone generates 36 percent of this amount. This calls for adequate measures to reduce livestock emissions through better feeding and manure management. The main environmental threat posed by livestock comes from the cattle colonies located in the suburbs of major cities, which generate massive pollution of surface and groundwater, pose a very high risk of disease outbreak and represent a major public health problem. The main domains that would require further investigation in order to draw a more comprehensive and detailed picture of the livestock sub-sector in Sindh will be: (i) access to finance and insurance, (ii) a meat and poultry value chain analysis, (iii) gender aspects in livestock value chains, and (iv) anassessment of emissions and mitigations opportunities.
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    Repurposing Agricultural Policies and Support: Options to Transform Agriculture and Food Systems to Better Serve the Health of People, Economies, and the Planet
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022-01-24) Gautam, Madhur ; Laborde, David ; Mamun, Abdullah ; Martin, Will ; Pineiro, Valeria ; Vos, Rob
    The report finds that repurposing a portion of government spending on agriculture each year to develop and disseminate more emission-efficient technologies for crops and livestock could reduce overall emissions from agriculture by more than 40 percent. Meanwhile, millions of hectares of land could be restored to natural habitats. The economic payoffs to this type of repurposing would be large. Redirecting about $70 billion a year, equivalent to one percent of global agricultural output, would yield a net benefit of over $2 trillion in 20 years.
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    Spearheading Vietnam’s Green Agricultural Transformation: Moving to Low-Carbon Rice
    (Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank
    This report focuses on promoting low-carbon rice production systems in Vietnam. There are many sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the agricultural sector in Vietnam, including along value chains and within the whole agri-food context. However, because rice production is so important to the country and to emission reductions in agriculture, this report focuses on known actions that can be rapidly upscaled, along with other complementary actions to reduce GHG emissions from rice production systems. The report covers emission reduction pathways in rice. This report assesses agronomic and other options that offer technically and economically feasible pathways to promote low-carbon rice. Some options have been piloted in Vietnam and require significant upscaling at the farm-level. This report considers challenges and practical actions and policy reforms to address these challenges for Vietnam’s low-carbon transition (LCT) in rice.
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    Transforming Agriculture in South Sudan: From Humanitarian Aid to a Development Oriented Growth Path
    (Rome, Italy; Washington D.C., United States of America : FAO; World Bank, 2022) Eliste, Paavo ; Forget, Vanina ; Veillerette, Benoist ; Rothe, Ann-Kristin ; Camara, Youssouf ; Cherrou, Yamina ; Ugo, Edward ; Deng, Samuel
    FAO teamed up with the World Bank on this strategic analysis of the investment, policy and institutional support needed to shift South Sudan’s agriculture sector from humanitarian relief to a development-oriented growth path. The team carried out a thorough review of lessons learned in South Sudan and other conflict-affected countries and held consultations with a wide range of stakeholders in the country. As a result, four complementary investment strategies were identified: agriculture production and food security; community resilience and social capital; value chain development and jobs; and peace consolidation. The authors advocate for combining these four strategies in a flexible way, depending on how the shocks currently affecting agriculture (conflict, violence, macro-economic instability, governance, natural disasters) evolve in the coming years. The Government of South Sudan and the World Bank consider this analytical work a milestone that will pave the way for future investments in agriculture and rural development in the country. This publication is part of the Country Investment Highlights series under the FAO Investment Centre’s Knowledge for Investment (K4I) programme.
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    Zambia's Farmer Input Support Program and Recommendations for Re-designing the Program
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-06-21) World Bank
    This note provides recommendations for redesigning Zambia’s Farmer Input Support Program (FISP) in the context of international experience with other similar programs, especially those in Africa. The objective of this note is to provide recommendations that can help in improving the current programs providing subsidized inputs to farmers, through enhancing the efficiency of the program, targeting the right beneficiaries, value perceived by beneficiary farmers, and probably bringing in savings. The note is a key deliverable under the Advisory Services work carried out by the Bank on strategies for food security in Zambia and Zimbabwe. This note has three sections following the summary: (i) a brief review of the evidence generated on input subsidy programs; (ii) specific recommendations for Zambia’s Farmers Input Support Program, and (iii) recommendations on complementary investments.
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    Nigeria Transforming Agribusiness for Inclusive Recovery, Jobs Creation, and Poverty Reduction: Policy Reforms and Investment Priorities
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-04-30) Mghenyi, Elliot W. ; Dankers, Cora ; Thurlow, James ; Anyiro, Chidozie
    Modern economic policy making in Nigeria has placed enormous emphasis on diversification of the economy to non-oil productive sectors. With the aim to restore economic growth following the 2015-16 recession and lay the foundations for long-term structural change, the economic growth and recovery plan (ERGP) recognized the need to diversify the economy to non-oil productive sectors such as agriculture and agro-allied industries, in order to build an economy that can generate inclusive growth and create jobs. This report aims to improve understanding of the potential of the agribusiness sector (primary agriculture plus off-farm agribusiness) to accelerate inclusive recovery from the 2020 recession, create jobs, and reduce poverty. A key early finding of the report is that the agribusiness sector is critical to accelerating inclusive recovery and creating jobs. The report builds on this evidence to identify the specific value chain groups that have most potential to create jobs, reduce poverty, and improve nutrition outcomes. Next, the report offers to highlight the complex set of factors that mediate the performance of agricultural value chains, distinguishing between issues that pertain to upstream primary agriculture, those that affect downstream off-farm agribusiness and cross-cutting challenges. The agribusiness enabling environment takes center stage in this part of the report, focusing on policy reforms around seed regulations, fertilizers quality control, warehouse receipts, and agricultural trade. Finally, the report takes deep dives to identify reforms to increase competitiveness in the value chains that were found to have the most potential to create jobs, reduce poverty, and improve nutrition outcomes.
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    The Croatian Livestock Sector in the Perspective of the New Cap: Pig and Cattle Production Systems, Competitiveness, and Public Expenditure
    (World Bank, Zagreb, 2021-02-01) World Bank
    The European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has evolved since its inception in 1962 and since the expansion of the EU to 28 member countries (EU28 - EU27, since the departure of the United Kingdom on 31 January 2020). In its latest iteration published in June 2018, the 2021-2027 CAP, now due for implementation in 2023, increases environmental sustainability requirements, while offering more flexibility to member state governments. Based on a detailed modelling exercise, consultations with both the Croatian authorities and agricultural stakeholders, this report supports the Croatian authorities in their efforts to comply with new CAP requirements in the livestock subsectors of pigs, beef and dairy production. Specifically, the report addresses two knowledge gaps: production systems, profitability and economic sustainability of production systems; and the effectiveness and equity of public support. The authors examine the main trends in productivity, output, prices, costs, and production technology on which to base their findings. The report also provides a detailed analysis of all types of public support available to livestock farmers, including rural development support, direct coupled and decoupled support, and subsidized diesel fuel, general expenditure on administration, knowledge and education expenditure, subsidized loans. Sections 2-4 include results from the Gap 1 analysis for each of the three subsectors, while section 5 provides a detailed analysis of public expenditure on the livestock sector in Croatia. Section 6 provides an overview of the revised CAP and some potential consequences it may have for the Croatian livestock sector. Policy suggestions are listed in section 7. Section 8 concludes.
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    Markham/Ramu Agricultural Growth Corridor: A Possible Path of Transformational Agricultural Development
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021) International Finance Corporation
    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in investments from the government, development partners and the private sector in integrated development/growth corridors and other spatial development initiatives, where coordinated investments in transport infrastructure, power, communications and markets are expected to create conditions to unleash Papua New Guinea’s undoubted agricultural potential. Growth corridor strategies are increasingly invoked to coordinate public and private investment around strategic backbone infrastructure in developing countries. Investments in soft and hard infrastructure to promote investment in processing zones or out-grower schemes and facilitate multi-stakeholder dialogue aim to overcome coordination failures and bottlenecks related to market linkages or producer-relations to secure supply chains. This paper discusses the model of growth corridors as a tool for inclusive agricultural development in Papua New Guinea. It provides corridor and other spatial development approaches in terms of i) their geographical scope, ii) their objectives and iii) their governance mechanisms, the driving force behind the corridor initiative. Finally, it analyzes the potential and the needs of how the Markham and Ramu valleys can be a role model for an agricultural transformation in Papua New Guinea.
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    Regional Risks to Agriculture in West Africa: Agricultural Risk Impacts, Management Measures, and Financing Mechanisms Through a Regional Lens
    (Washington, DC, 2020-12-31) World Bank
    Agriculture is an increasingly risky business in much of the world, including the West African region. The World Bank has developed an Agricultural Risk Management (ARM) framework that assesses risks in systemic production, markets, and enabling environments to understand their total sectoral impacts and to prioritize them. Prioritizing risks improves targeting of risk management measures so that scarce resources can be allocated where they have the most impact. It also helps identify how to align other agriculture, environment, and social protection policies to manage existing risks. These risks are usually identified and managed at national levels, and the three key types are production risks, market risks, and enabling environment risks. This report focuses on how West African countries can benefit from collaboration in managing agrifood system risks and on the resulting need to adapt a regional lens to the ARM framework. Since both crop-specific growing areas and the risks they face often span national borders, there are substantial advantages that can be gained by stronger collaboration. There is a need to build layered approaches to manage risk that combine risk-mitigating, risk-transfer, and risk-coping instruments. These risk management approaches are needed within countries, with regional approaches building on national efforts. This report provides a foundational analysis to begin identifying needed actions for West African countries and at regional levels.
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    Integrating Venezuelan Migrants in Colombia’s Agri-Food Sector
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-12-11) Sebastian, Ashwini Rekha ; Perego, Viviana Maria Eugenia ; Munoz Mora, Juan Carlos
    By the end of August 2020, five years since the intensification of the Venezuelan humanitarian crisis, 5.2 million Venezuelans had fled their country, in an exodus whose scale and pace closely mirror those of the Syrian refugee crisis - where by 2015, four years into the forced displacement crisis, 4.8 million people had escaped Syria. In the immediate aftermath of the surge in the number of Venezuelan migrants, the focus of the Colombian government was to register all migrants and provide relief through health and welfare systems. This report is intended to reach a broad audience of policy makers, program administrators, development professionals, and academics in Colombia and in the broader development community, and aims to assesses the integration of Venezuelan migrants into Colombian agri-food labor markets through a combination of original micro-level data analysis and in-depth semi-structured field interviews with Venezuelan migrants, producers’ associations, and Colombian institutions. The main contributions of the study are three-fold. First, the report offers a detailed overview of Venezuelan migration into Colombia, spatially and over time, enriching with new, and more detailed, insights the currently available information on migrants’ employment outcomes and on their comparison to those of the local Colombian population. A second contribution of the report is to provide evidence that the agri-food sector in Colombia has a yet unfulfilled potential to support a smoother inclusion of Venezuelan migrants in the labor force. The third and final contribution of the report is to identify lessons learned for the inclusion of Venezuelan migrants in the agri-food sector in Colombia. The report concludes with a look at the path ahead, through practical ideas and operationalization principles for delivering a strategy that includes both supply and demand driven integration of migrants in labor markets, featuring agriculture and food systems more prominently.