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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-02-01) World BankThe report aims to advance a policy dialogue on how to address sustainability challenges from lowland developments. The specific approach discussed in this report is the "landscape approach" which, in turn, calls for improved "landscape governance." As a technical background study, the report serves four functions. First, it summarizes the principles of a landscape approach, elaborated in the context of Indonesia's lowlands through two previous technical studies. Second, it takes stock of current governance challenges in Indonesia's lowlands, focusing on those related to the government sector, and discusses how these challenges currently prevent a landscape approach from being implemented in Indonesia's lowlands. Third, it reviews Indonesia's recent efforts to address the governance challenges in the management of peatlands and other lowland ecosystems. Fourth, it offers recommendations on options to improve lowland governance in order to shift toward integrated management of Indonesia's lowlands based on a landscape approach.The report focuses on the lowland areas in eight fire-prone provinces, and on key landscape governance issues related to peatlands. Indonesia suffered many years of repeated fires and haze crises, with landmark events in 1982/83, 1997/98, 2002, 2006, 2009, and 2015. The 2015 El Niño-driven fires were particularly extensive and costly. Almost 80 percent of the 2015–16 fires occurred within the lowland areas in eight fire-prone provinces—Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Jambi, Papua, Riau, South Kalimantan, South Sumatra, and West Kalimantan—which together account for 87 percent of lowland areas nationally. The report highlights the importance of sustainable landscape management of lowland areas, particularly of the peatlands within lowland boundaries, for achieving the Government of Indonesia’s objective in preventing land and forest fires.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-02-01) World BankFor Indonesia's agricultural sector to continue to make a significant sustainable social and economic contribution, it will need to undergo a transformation. While the contribution of Indonesia's agriculture sector to national gross domestic product (13 percent) has declined greatly over the past three decades, it is still significant, ranking in third place in 2019 after the oil and gas processing sector (20 percent) and the non-oil and gas processing sector (18 percent). To ensure continued contribution of this sector, the Indonesian government has implemented a number of strategies and measures, including REDD+,1 low carbon development, Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) action plans, and green growth strategies. However, despite these efforts, performance in terms of environmental sustainability indicators and contributions to smallholders' livelihoods, particularly in lowland areas, is still suboptimal. Indonesia's lowland areas, in particular, have significant potential to contribute to increased agricultural production, especially in the case of rice, but also for a range of other food and non-food commodities. Indonesia's lowlands cover about 20 percent of Indonesia's total area of which about half are peatlands. Most of this area is found on Indonesia's three largest islands (Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Papua) amounting to 33.7 million hectares, or about 25 percent of the total land area of these islands (World Bank 2018). Indonesia has the largest area of tropical peatlands of any nation, of which more than 90 percent are distributed in the lowland areas of these three islands. However, lowlands are also of great importance for biodiversity, including mangroves, peat swamp forest and freshwater swamp forest with their specific flora and fauna. Despite the significance of lowland agriculture for the achievement of higher levels of national economic growth and environmental sustainability and for improving rural livelihoods in Indonesia, lowland agriculture must overcome several challenges if it is to realize its full potential.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06-23) World BankThis background paper aims to provide an assessment of the issues and options in promoting digital agriculture in Indonesia, within the broader technology landscape of the country, with the primary aim of informing the design of the proposed World Bank investment project. The study considers global best practices as well as the status of Indonesia in product traceability, e-commerce, agriculture fintech service providers, weather index insurance providers, and precision farming technology providers. Although digital agriculture is cross-cutting across all commodities, the focus was on the horticulture and small ruminant value chains as those were identified as priority commodity categories by the Ministry of Agriculture. The study also offers high-level recommendations for policymakers on reforms and programs that can accelerate the adoption of digital agriculture. In the first section, the national context and the importance of ICT technology in agriculture are summarized. Section two presents the current landscape of digital agriculture in Indonesia, followed by section three that suggests key areas where ICT can play a role in agriculture, based on global experience. As scaling up the digitization of the agriculture sector involves a complex set of policy, investment, innovation, and capacity-building measures, several high-level recommendations are provided for policymakers and practitioners in the fourth and last section.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-06-19) World BankThe Government of Indonesia is aiming to diversify the country’s food system by developing and strengthening high-value-added and more nutrient-rich value chains. In this regard, the government is focusing on diversifying into horticulture and small ruminant livestock. Undertaking Value Chain Analysis (VCA) is a critical part of this process as it helps in the identification of constraints and opportunities in relevant sectors. Agriculture funding and finance are vital components of this analytical process. This report presents a preliminary overview of opportunities and constraints as well as areas for future interventions. The analysis is based on a World Bank and FAO scoping mission to Indonesia that took place between March 2 - March 13, 2020. This report focuses on the supply-side of capital. The key findings suggest that supply-side constraints are minimal. The liquidity in Indonesia’s banking system is enough and there already exist extensive physical banking networks within the country. The Indonesian banking networks include a selection of commercial and specialized banks, membership-based groups, and fintech organizations. Also, there exist several large food manufacturers that could potentially aid in the process of financing and the creation of linkages through vertical integration of value chains. The Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) in the food and agriculture sectors have been growing strongly, and they can act as accelerators and facilitate the process. The Indonesian government is supporting the development of value chains and has been actively promoting the creation of farmer organizations to aid the process. Lastly, there exists a demand for the creation of a blended finance facility that could help amplify the effects of the value chain projects, and the Tropical Landscapes Finance Facility (TLFF) is a proof of such a concept that is working well in Indonesia.