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PublicationAddressing the Aggregation and Coordination Problems in Smallholder-based Value Chains(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018) Shepherd, Andrew W.Smallholder production predominates in many areas of primary food production in Indonesia. Yet, outside of oil palm and poultry, contract farming is rare as are other forms of collective action or vertical coordination. Fragmented production and market interfaces give rise to high transaction costs and problems in matching supply with downstream or consumer requirements. Yet, there is a growing body of international experience promoting multiple models to help realize some economies of scale within smallholder-based production systems and effectively addressing the aggregation and market-matching problems. These include different forms of joint farming operations, shared services, farmer organizations, contracting arrangements or partnerships with agro-enterprises, and other models. Their suitability and need for public enabling support varies depending upon the underlying circumstances. This note synthesizes experiences, lessons learned, and success factors with potential relevance for Indonesian staple food crop and horticultural production. PublicationDeveloping Parametric Insurance for Weather Related Risks for Indonesia(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-01) World Bank GroupIndonesia is one of the main agriculture producers globally and largely relies on domestic staples for its growing population. Projections of climate change models for Indonesia point towards increasing temperatures and more extreme distributions of precipitation with more frequent dry and wet periods. The Government of Indonesia (GoI) has been focusing on modernizing rice production through improved irrigation infrastructure and early warning systems to better cope with developing droughts and support schemes for rice farmers. While governments use risk transfer solutions mostly for infrastructure, parametric insurance covers have become increasingly available for agriculture assets including crops, livestock, and forestry. This study investigates the development of a parametric insurance product as an ex ante risk management instrument that relies on regional drought indices and provides province-level payouts to the GoI in case of severe droughts. As a case study, the province of Central Java has been chosen given its importance in rice production and a recent request of the Central Java Government to transfer drought risk. This study uses over 50 years of historical gridded precipitation and temperature data to develop standard precipitation indices (SPI) and standard precipitation evapotranspiration indices (SPEI) to quantify drought extents at a resolution of 50 x 50 km. Preliminary results of this study have been shown and discussed with the Ministry of Agriculture of Central Java, the National Weather Service of Indonesia (BMKG), the Office of the Insurance Regulator, the Ministry of Finance, and leading Indonesian insurers in the form of workshops undertaken in Indonesia (Semarang and Jakarta) in July 2017. The availability of longer seasonal rice production data will improve the validation of the developed indices. PublicationThe Economics of Tobacco Farming in Indonesia(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-10-06) World Bank GroupThis report aims to contribute to the policy debate over the reform of the Indonesian tobacco excise tax system by reporting results of a nationally representative survey of and focus group discussion with smallholder tobacco farmers that examine their livelihoods and how tobacco tax reform may affect these households. PublicationThe Economics of Clove Farming in Indonesia(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-09-23) World Bank GroupThis report aims to inform the current debate over the taxation of kreteks in Indonesia by examining clove-farming livelihoods. It presents results from a comprehensive, household-level, economically-focused survey of 600 clove farmers across the two largest clove-growing regions, Sulawesi and Central Java. The survey examines the role that clove farming plays in these households’ economic lives, among other related topics.