Health, Nutrition and Population

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  • Publication
    From Panic and Neglect to Investing in Health Security: Financing Pandemic Preparedness at a National Level
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-05) International Working Group on Financing Preparedness; Sands, Peter
    Deadly infectious pandemics will mark humanity's future, as they have shaped its past. Neither individual governments nor the global community can entirely prevent the emergence of infectious threats. But we can be much better prepared. This report by the International Working Group on Financing Preparedness (IWG) proposes ways in which national governments and development partners can finance investments in country and regional preparedness and response capacities for pandemics and other health emergencies. Preparedness for pandemics refers to health and non-health interventions, capabilities, and capacities at community, country, regional, and global levels. Their purpose is to prevent, detect, contain and respond to the spread of disease and other hazards, mitigating social disruptions and limiting risks to international travel and trade.
  • Publication
    Health Financing and Delivery in Vietnam : Looking Forward
    (World Bank, 2009) Lieberman, Samuel S.; Wagstaff, Adam
    This book reviews Vietnam's successes and the challenges it faces, and goes on to suggest some options for further reforming the country's health system. Options for expanding coverage to 100 percent of the population are compared. The issue of how to deepen coverage, so that insurance reduces out-of-pocket spending by more than it does at present, is also discussed, as is the issue of how to put downward pressure on the cost of health care. The book also looks at the issues of how to improve the quality of care, both overall and at the hospital level, and how to reform provider payment methods. It also looks at the issue of stewardship, what different parts of government (the health ministry, the health insurer, and so on) should be doing at each level of government, and what different levels of government (the central government, provincial government, and so forth) ought to be doing.
  • Publication
    Performance-Based Contracting for Health Services in Developing Countries : A Toolkit
    (Washington, DC : World Bank, 2008) Loevinsohn, Benjamin
    This toolkit provides practical advice to anyone involved in, or who is interested in becoming involved in, performance-based contracting of health services with non state providers in the context of developing countries. It addresses many of the issues that may be encountered. Input from experienced contracting professionals will give newcomers increased confidence as they go forward. Experts directly involved in contracting on a large scale have contributed to the development of this toolkit. The first section provides summary before moving on to the main part of the toolkit. The section provides background on contracting, including definitions of key terms, the types of services that can be contracted, how contracting relates to other ways of organizing health services, and which contracting approaches work in different settings. The third section provides a systematic way of thinking about contracting and how to do it in practice. It looks at seven aspects of the contracting process from initial dialogue with stakeholders through carrying out the bidding process and managing contracts. This framework will help ensure a systematic consideration of the choices and challenges. The fourth section provides checklist which contains tasks and issues to address while designing and implementing a contract. The checklist can also be used to review an existing contract to see what is missing or could be improved. The fifth and final section reviews the evidence for contracting in developing countries, explores why contracting appears to work, and addresses concerns that have been expressed about contracting.
  • Publication
    AIDS in South Asia : Understanding and Responding to a Heterogeneous Epidemic
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2006) Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F.; Kang, Han; Emmanuel, Faran; Reza Paul, Sushena; Becker, Marissa L.; Wilson, David; Claeson, Mariam
    South Asia's HIV epidemic is highly heterogeneous. As a result, informed, prioritized, and effective responses necessitate an understanding of the epidemic diversity between and within countries. Further spread of HIV in South Asia is preventable. The future size of South Asia's epidemic will depend on an effective two-pronged approach: firstly, on the scope and effectiveness of HIV prevention programs for sex workers and their clients, injecting drug users and their sexual partners, and men having sex with men and their other sexual partners; and secondly, on the effectiveness of efforts to address the underlying socio-economic determinants of the epidemic, and to reduce stigma and discrimination towards people engaging in high risk behaviors, often marginalized in society, as well as people living with HIV and AIDS.
  • Publication
    India's Undernourished Children : A Call for Reform and Action
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2006) Gragnolati, Michele; Bredenkamp, Caryn; Lee, Yi-Kyoung
    The prevalence of child undernutrition in India is among the highest in the world; nearly double that of Sub-Saharan Africa, with dire consequences for morbidity, mortality, productivity and economic growth. Drawing on qualitative studies and quantitative evidence from large household surveys, this book explores the dimensions of child undernutrition in India and examines the effectiveness of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) program, India's main early child development intervention, in addressing it. Although levels of undernutrition in India declined modestly during the 1990s, the reductions lagged behind those achieved by other countries with similar economic growth. Nutritional inequalities across different states and socioeconomic and demographic groups remain large. Although the ICDS program appears to be well-designed and well-placed to address the multi-dimensional causes of malnutrition in India, several problems exist that prevent it from reaching its potential. The book concludes with a discussion of a number of concrete actions that can be taken to bridge the gap between the policy intentions of ICDS and its actual implementation.
  • Publication
    The Economics of Effective AIDS Treatment : Evaluating Policy Options for Thailand
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2006) Revenga, Ana; Masaki, Emiko; Peerapatanapokin, Wiwat; Gold, Julian; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Thanprasertsuk, Sombat; Brown, Tim; Duncombe, Chris; Lertiendumrong, Jongkol; Phongphit, Seri; Tantisak, Bussaba; Wilson, David
    The purpose of this report is to advise the Thai government and Thai society at large about the full range of benefits, costs, and consequences that are likely to result from the decision to expand public provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) through National Access to Antiretroviral Program for People Living with HIV/AIDS (NAPHA) and to assist with the design of implementation policies that will achieve maximum treatment benefits, while promoting prevention of HIV/AIDS and maintaining financial sustainability within Thailand. The study has several significant findings: NAPHA with first-line regimen only is the most cost-effective policy option of those studied; NAPHA with second-line therapy is still affordable and yields large benefits in terms of life-years saved; policy options to enhance adherence and to recruit patients earlier are a good public investment; public financing will help ensure equitable access; public financing can strengthen positive spillovers and can limit negative spillovers of ART; if the success of ART rollout makes people or the government complacent about prevention, future costs could rise substantially; and future government expenditures on ART, and the lives it will save are highly sensitive to negotiated agreements on the intellectual property rights for pharmaceuticals. In its current form, Thailand's NAPHA program is affordable. Under the model's assumptions, it is also cost-effective relative to the baseline scenario. Furthermore, although the two enhanced policies we suggest early recruitment through expanded voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) and improved adherence through Person living with HIV/AIDS (PHA) groups are less cost-effective, they are still a good bargain, particularly if both are enacted.
  • Publication
    Health Economics in Development
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2004) Musgrove, Philip; Musgrove, Philip
    The papers in this collection span 21 years of thinking and writing about health economics, first at the Pan American Health Organization (1982-1990) and then at the World Bank (1990-2002, including two years, 1999-2001, on secondment to the World Health Organization). They are divided into six general topics, which together touch on several of the major issues in this field. Chapters 1 through 3 concern the connection between health, particularly public health, and economics-a connection that has occupied much of my professional effort, in part because I started to work on the subject in an organization dominated by public health professionals, and only later moved to an organization dominated by other economists. Chapters 4 through 6 treat several different aspects of equity, while chapters 7 through 17 deal with effectiveness and efficiency, first in general terms and then with specific attention to communicable diseases and to malnutrition. Equity and efficiency are among the main issues in any branch of economics, and-as several chapters illustrate-they often cannot be sharply separated. Chapters 18 through 20 concern how health is, and how it should be, paid for-questions that involve both equity and efficiency.
  • Publication
    Addressing HIV/AIDS in East Asia and the Pacific
    (Washington, DC, 2004) World Bank
    With almost half the world's population, Asia will determine the future of the global human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic. If prevalence rates in China, Indonesia, and India increase to numbers similar to those seen in Thailand and Cambodia, the rate of HIV/AIDS would double globally. Such growth would be devastating for individuals-and for the region's health systems, economies, and social fabric. HIV/AIDS is therefore a multisectoral development challenge and, consequently, a corporate priority for the World Bank. This report outlines a strategic direction for the World Bank in its multisectoral response to HIV/AIDS in the East Asia and Pacific (EAP) Region. It describes the risk of a large-scale HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region. It also spells out what can be done to avert the growth of HIV/AIDS-and what government, civil society, and other partners are doing. And it identifies how the World Bank can assist at the country and regional levels. The World Bank will work with countries, civil society, the private sector, donors, and other key players to formulate country-specific strategies that try to respond to the needs of the population.
  • Publication
    HIV/AIDS Treatment and Prevention in India : Modeling the Cost and Consequences
    (Washington, DC, 2004) Over, Mead; Heywood, Peter; Gold, Julian; Gupta, Indrani; Hira, Subhash; Marseille, Elliot
    The three policies analyzed in this document include a minimalist policy in which the government strengthens private sector delivery, an intermediate policy of providing treatment for mothers who have AIDS and their spouses, and a generous policy of providing treatment to the poorest 40 percent of all AIDS patients. In January 2004 the Indian government adopted an AIDS financing policy which contains elements of all three of the hypothetical policies analyzed in this book. This study's projections of the total financial cost of the program and of the cost-effectiveness of the three options can help the government and its partners to plan the scale-up of the existing treatment program, to optimize the mix of components in order to improve its cost-effectiveness and to design monitoring and evaluation measures which provide feedback on program performance.
  • Publication
    Health Policy Research in South Asia : Building Capacity for Reform
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2003-08) Yazbeck, Abdo S.; Yazbeck, Abdo S.; Peters, David H.
    The richness of the research papers in this volume makes it difficult to quickly capture the main themes and implications of their research. But three repeated themes can be highlighted: equality of public spending, the role of the private sector, and the role of consumers. On the theme of equality in public expenditures, research in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka shows that in some parts of South Asia-such as south India and Sri Lanka-governments do a much better job of distributing subsidies in the health sector than other regions. The research overwhelmingly documents the dominance of the private sector in Bangladesh and India and finds a very strong private sector in Sri Lanka. The research also highlights different policy instruments available to the government for working with the private sector to achieve health sector outcomes. A third general theme is the role of consumers and the mechanisms available to them to influence health services delivery. The authors in this volume have supported the belief that individuals and households can make a difference in how health services are delivered. While the three themes summarized above cut across several of the chapters in this volume, a more basic theme underlies all the chapters and is the main motivation for conducting health policy research. That theme is that empirical research can and should challenge basic assumptions about the health sector and will provide policymakers some of the tools needed to improve and monitor the performance of the sector.