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PublicationImproving Secondary and Local Roads in Albania : Lessons from a Programmatic Approach(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-03) Humphreys, Martin; Guxho, Artan; Ishihara, SatoshiAlbania has made considerable progress since transition in overcoming the legacy of nearly forty years of autarky. But despite significant progress and some of the fastest rates of gross domestic product (GDP) growth in South East Europe, it remains one of the impoverished countries in Europe, with the majority of the population, and the majority of the poor, living in rural areas. These areas, despite the acknowledged links between infrastructure provision and poverty reduction, are currently poorly served by infrastructure, with the majority of the secondary and local road network in poor condition, and often impassable in inclement weather. Accordingly, in 2006, the Prime Minister established a task force to prepare a program to improve a significant proportion of the secondary and local network and requested the assistance of the World Bank to prepare, and contribute to the financing, of such a program. This transport note summarizes the experience of the World Bank and details the key factors underpinning what has became a very successful program, together with the main lessons learned. PublicationTransport as a Factor in the Investment Climate(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2006-08) Aoki, Naomi; Roberts, PeterThis Note shows how, through a process of consultation between the World Bank Transport Sector and Private Sector Department, some focus on transport has been introduced into the Global "core" module of the Investment Climate Survey. The Note also shows the scope for achieving much more focus on specific transport constraints in Investment Climate Assessments for countries where these are expected to be particularly important. Examples are given of questionnaires which have been developed to complement the "core" module and specifically to meet the needs of two Regions, Africa and Latin America and the Caribbean, where different aspects of transport have been identified as significant considerations for investors. For Africa the focus is on the availability of suitable transport services. For Latin America the emphasis is rather on the role of transport in influencing the location of enterprises. Application of these revised questionnaires will provide more data on the contribution of transport to doing business in different countries. PublicationHow a Road Agency Can Transform Force Account Road Maintenance to Contracting(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2006-06) Andreski, Adam; Seth, Subhash; Walker, WendyRecent international trends in the reform of road management, point to the need to transform force account road maintenance services. With Force Account, funding tends to be erratic; management of equipment and its support facilities inadequate, planning, supervision and execution require high standards of staffing, quality control may be poor; and reporting systems weak. Contracted works have the advantages that payment of work is done to specification, rates are known making budgeting and planning easier, risk is transferred from the Public Sector to the Private Sector, and the profit motive tends to promote efficiency and reduce unnecessary waste. An International Labour Organization study in Cambodia found that contracted road maintenance is 24 percent cheaper than force account and Talvitie found contracting out gave 5-15 percent in efficiency gains. Many countries have already gone through this process and every country has a different experience. This paper brings a systematic approach with a focus on situation analysis, identification of options, developing transformation strategy, addressing social issues, management options, and monitoring efficiency and effectiveness of the program.