Transport Notes

53 items available

Permanent URI for this collection

The goal of Transport Notes series is dissemination of recent experiences and innovations in the World Bank Group’s transport sector operations.

Items in this collection

Now showing 1 - 10 of 28
  • Publication
    Geohazard Management in the Transport Sector
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-03) Muzira, Stephen; Humphreys, Martin; Pohl, Wolfhart
    Geohazards can result in significant loss of human life as well as cause extensive damage to infrastructure. The magnitude and frequency of geohazard events ranges from earthquakes and tsunamis to landslides and flash floods. In the most severe cases involving the low frequency but more intense geohazards like earthquakes or tsunamis, the primary concern, ex ante, is on the minimization of the potential loss of life and property, damage to infrastructure, and ensuring continuity in the functionality of public and private services. In the higher frequency, lower impact, geohazards, such as landslides, flash floods, and rock fall, proper planning remains vital, but is often overlooked in transition and developing economies. In the transport sector, proper planning for this category of geohazards can realize significant savings in construction costs, avoiding cost over-runs, repair costs and costly delays, and subsequent maintenance costs. This technical note provides a summary of the typology of geohazards, prospective mitigation measures, and current practices in managing geohazards. It also outlines some key recommendations to facilitate improved management of geohazards in the transport sector.
  • Publication
    Assessment of Road Funds in South Asia Region
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-12) Guillossou, Jean-Noel; Stankevich, Natalya
    Sustaining an adequate level of resources for road maintenance has been a continuous issue worldwide, including in South Asia. Since the late 1990s South Asia has developed different models of Road Funds (RFs), at the national level, or in the case of India at the state and local level, to improve sources of financing for road maintenance and development. The World Bank South Asia transport team has carried out a review of RFs in the region to draw lessons learned from the past experience. The review provides the analytical underpinning for advising governments on how to improve the performance of existing RFs or how to establish new RFs for road maintenance, and for providing guidance to the World Bank for revising its transport sector strategy in relation to road policy reforms in the South Asia region.
  • Publication
    Railways in Development : Global Round-Up 1996-2005
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2007-09) Amos, Paul; Thompson, Lou
    This Transport Note has been prepared as an adjunct to the 2006-07 updating of the World Bank's Railways Databases. It uses the databases for inferences on aggregate trends as well as other Bank documents and sources of policy information. It provides a high level view of traffic and policy developments. Particular emphasis is given to the Bank's six regions of operations at a time when the Bank's Transport Strategy is being updated with the intention of increasing the attention given to the role of railways in development. For completeness, important policy developments in the higher income countries are also summarized. The Note has been prepared by Paul Amos, Transport Adviser to the World Bank and Lou Thompson, Railway Consultant, and formerly Railways Adviser to the World Bank. While the content has drawn upon the broad experience and expertise of the Bank in the railway sector, any views expressed herein are strictly those of the authors.
  • Publication
    Railways in Development : Global Round-Up 1996-2005
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2007-09) Amos, Paul; Thompson, Lou
    This Transport Note has been prepared as an adjunct to the 2006-07 updating of the World Bank's Railways Databases (www.worldbank.org/railways). It uses the databases for inferences on aggregate trends (and so subject to the caveats provided in the Explanatory Note cited) as well as other Bank documents and sources of policy information. It provides a high level view of traffic and policy developments. Particular emphasis is given to the Bank's six regions of operations at a time when the Bank's Transport Strategy is being updated with the intention of increasing the attention given to the role of railways in development. For completeness, important policy developments in the higher income countries are also summarized.
  • Publication
    How a Road Agency Can Transform Force Account Road Maintenance to Contracting
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2006-06) Andreski, Adam; Seth, Subhash; Walker, Wendy
    Recent international trends in the reform of road management, point to the need to transform force account road maintenance services. With Force Account, funding tends to be erratic; management of equipment and its support facilities inadequate, planning, supervision and execution require high standards of staffing, quality control may be poor; and reporting systems weak. Contracted works have the advantages that payment of work is done to specification, rates are known making budgeting and planning easier, risk is transferred from the Public Sector to the Private Sector, and the profit motive tends to promote efficiency and reduce unnecessary waste. An International Labour Organization study in Cambodia found that contracted road maintenance is 24 percent cheaper than force account and Talvitie found contracting out gave 5-15 percent in efficiency gains. Many countries have already gone through this process and every country has a different experience. This paper brings a systematic approach with a focus on situation analysis, identification of options, developing transformation strategy, addressing social issues, management options, and monitoring efficiency and effectiveness of the program.
  • Publication
    Data Collection Technologies for Road Management
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2006-05) Bennett, Christopher R.; De Solminihac, Hernán; Chamorro, Alondra
    Different types of data are required for managing the road infrastructure. Inventory data describe the physical elements of a road system. Condition data describe the condition of elements that can be expected to change over time. There are a wide range of technologies available to the road manager for measuring attributes of the road network. The challenge is to select the appropriate equipment, given local conditions and the way in which the data are expected to be used. The purpose of this note is to give a general view of the currently available survey technologies applied to pavements, bridges and traffic. This includes an assessment of the applicability of these technologies in developing countries. The goal is to assist managers in establishing an appropriate and sustainable e data collection program and procuring the appropriate equipment to collect the data. This note is a summary of the report 'Data Collection Technologies for Road Management' (see report no. 37372). The note opens with a discussion of data collection requirements. This is then followed by separate discussions on pavements, bridges and traffic survey technologies. A cost/performance analysis between available equipment is presented in each section. Finally, recommendations for data collection are presented as a guidance to managers in developing countries.
  • Publication
    Surfacing Alternatives for Unsealed Rural Roads
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2006-05) Henning, Theuns; Kadar, Peter; Bennett, Christopher R.
    Despite extensive road construction programs over the last century, a substantial proportion of roads remained unsealed especially in developing and emerging economies. As these economies develop, the demand arises to seal previously unsealed roads. The most economical transition point between unsealed and sealed roads depends on many conditions that need to be evaluated. The purpose of this Note is to provide guidance for decision makers, engineers and administrators on selecting the most appropriate surface for unsealed road given the prevailing conditions. It is based on the report "Surfacing Alternatives for Unsealed Roads" (report 37192).
  • Publication
    Highway and Railway Development in India and China, 1992-2002
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2006-05) Harral, Clel; Sondhi, Jit; Guang Zhe Chen
    This Note compares the development of highway and railway infrastructure in India and China during 1992 and 2002. It examines key strategies pursued by the countries including China's highway financing schemes; China's planning, design, tendering, and supervision of construction; potential lessons learned from India's highway sector development; the comparative financial and operational performance of the two countries; and lessons learned from China railways, particularly its ability to achieve to achieve higher output and productivity.
  • Publication
    Treatment of Induced Traffic
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2005-01) Mackie, Peter; Nellthorp, John; Laird, James
    Induced traffic can be an important part of the economic appraisal particularly when the objective of the investment is to stimulate economic development; it's importance, however, is not restricted to such situations. The omission of induced traffic from the economic appraisal, or its incorrect treatment, may lead to either over or underestimations in the user benefits (consumer surplus) of an investment. In addressing this issues, this note, considers: the importance of induced traffic for the economic appraisal (Section 1); what constitutes induced traffic (Section 2); the situations in which induced traffic is likely to be relevant (Section 3) and the manner in which it can be modeled (Section 4) and user benefits calculated when it is present (Section 5). The annexes show the relative importance of including the benefits of induced traffic in the evaluation of an urban transport project; where the standard "rule of one half" breaks down in some situations that are often present in Bank projects, while another shows a numeric integration technique that can be used as a valid alternative to the rule of one half in many of these situations (and coincidently, provides a more precise evaluation even where the "rule of one half" gives an acceptable estimation).
  • Publication
    Economic Appraisal of Regulatory Reform - Checklist of Issues
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2005-01) Mackie, Peter; Nellthorp, Peter; Laird, James
    The purpose of this brief note is to set out a checklist of issues which need to be considered when assessing the likely economic impact of regulatory reform. There is a great deal of relevant world literature, but a note of caution is appropriate when considering the transferability of experience, and especially outcome, from one country to another. Circumstances alter cases.