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PublicationSurfacing Alternatives for Unsealed Rural Roads(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2006-05) Henning, Theuns; Kadar, Peter; Bennett, Christopher R.Despite extensive road construction programs over the last century, a substantial proportion of roads remained unsealed especially in developing and emerging economies. As these economies develop, the demand arises to seal previously unsealed roads. The most economical transition point between unsealed and sealed roads depends on many conditions that need to be evaluated. The purpose of this Note is to provide guidance for decision makers, engineers and administrators on selecting the most appropriate surface for unsealed road given the prevailing conditions. It is based on the report "Surfacing Alternatives for Unsealed Roads" (report 37192). PublicationRural Access and Mobility in Pakistan : A Policy Note(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2005-01) Essakali, Mohammed DalilThis note presents a number of policy options to improve basic access and promote the mobility of Pakistan's rural population in support of the Government's Poverty Reduction Strategy. This is achieved through more focused and community driven interventions to meet the direct needs of the rural population. The current state of rural accessibility and mobility are examined together with their effect on both the social and economic dimensions of rural poverty. Key challenges and constraints to reform are identified. The note contributes to the current debate within Pakistan with regard to the better targeting of interventions to assist the rural poor. It should also be of interest to policy makers in other countries concerned with how rural transport policy may be developed to meet the Millennium Development Goals. PublicationTreatment of Pedestrian and Non-Motorised Traffic(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2005-01) Mackie, Peter; Nellthorp, John; Laird, JamesPedestrians and Non-Motorized Traffic vehicles (NMTs) are part of the complete transport scene and in some cases form a very important aspect of that scene. As with the motorized sector of the transport market, this sector will experience positive and negative impacts as a consequence of a transport investment and the sector therefore needs to be included within the appraisal of that investment. Wheeled NMTs (e.g. bicycles and rickshaws) can experience benefits as smoother roads reduce operating costs and journey times, whether that be in an urban or rural environment. New roads and smoother roads can also lead to mode switching from pedestrian modes to either wheeled NMTs or motorized vehicles, giving both journey time and operating cost savings. An increase in the speed of traffic on an upgraded road may result in an increase in the seriousness of road accidents (i.e. an increase in the average number of fatalities per accident), with pedestrians and NMTs being the vulnerable road user groups. In some situations increases in capacity of urban intersections or urban arterials (e.g. construction of an urban motorway or freeway) may reduce the amount of road space available for NMTs thereby imposing costs (both travel time and operating costs) on that road user group. As with motorized transport, pedestrians and NMTs may benefit from a transport investment through operating cost savings, travel time savings, and accident and safety impacts. The inclusion of benefits to pedestrians and NMTs can form a significant proportion of the total scheme benefits for investments such as low volume rural roads.