infoDev Knowledge Maps

8 items available

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infoDev’s Knowledge Maps on ICTs in education are intended to serve as quick snapshots of what the research literature reveals in a number of key areas. They are not meant to be an exhaustive catalog of everything that is known (or has been debated) about the use of ICTs in education in a particular topic; rather, taken together they are an attempt to summarize and give shape to a very large body of knowledge and to highlight certain issues in a format quickly accessible to busy policymakers. The infoDev knowledge mapping exercise is meant to identify key general assertions and gaps in the knowledge base of what is known about the use of ICTs in education, especially as such knowledge may relate to the education-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

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Knowledge Map : Impact of ICTs on Learning and Achievement

2008-11, World Bank

It is generally believed that information and communication technologies (ICTs) can empower teachers and learners, promote change and foster the development of '21st century skills, but data to support these beliefs are still limited. There is widespread belief that ICTs can and will empower teachers and learners, transforming teaching and learning processes from being highly teacher-dominated to student-centered, and that this transformation will result in increased learning gains for students, creating and allowing for opportunities for learners to develop their creativity, problem-solving abilities, informational reasoning skills, communication skills, and other higher-order thinking skills. However, there are currently very limited, unequivocally compelling data to support this belief.

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Knowledge Map : Current Projects and Practices

2008-01, World Bank

Locating and identifying the uses of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to benefit education in developing countries is a tedious, difficult, time-consuming, and ad hoc task. No standard reference or methodology exists for identifying such investments. Observations and conclusions on how ICTs are actually used in schools are drawn almost exclusively from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) experience. Little such data exists for least development countries LDCs, and essentially none for countries most at risk of meeting education-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Emerging evidence from OECD countries suggests that even massive investments in ICTs in schools may not bring about the desired changes in teaching and learning processes unless such investments are supported by similar initiatives to improve access to ICTs outside of the school environment. This may be especially important for uses of ICTs to support education for all (EFA) goals, as effective use in school may require high levels of access outside school if gains in such investments are to be maximized, especially where ICTs are to be used for communication purposes.

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Knowledge Map : Equity Issues - Gender, Special Needs and Marginalized Groups

2005-03, World Bank

Equity issues are critical and acute. It is clear that there are critical equity issues related to the uses of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in education. There is a real danger that uses of ICTs can further marginalize groups already excluded or marginalized from existing educational practices and environments. Solid documentation from Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. There is a richly documented history of what works and what doesn't related to the uses of ICTs to assist in the education of students with a variety of disabilities, both cognitive and physical based on OECD experience. Certain applications of ICTs have been shown to have positive and important effects on the educational development of students exhibiting a great variety of special needs (including blind, deaf, and learning disabled students). While ample evidence exists that ICT use can have a positive impact on student motivation, such gains in motivation tend to correlate most closely with students who are already the most academically motivated and highest achievers.

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Enhancing the Livelihoods of the Rural Poor through ICT - A Knowledge Map: Tanzania Country Study

2008-06, Economic and Social Research Foundation, McNamara, Kerry

The major objective of the study was to come up with illustrative success stories as well as failures to give lessons on ICT interventions in the area of rural livelihoods and their impact in Tanzania. The key issues addressed in this study were: 1) common ICTs used by the rural poor in Tanzania; 2) which ICTs are regarded as attractive by different groups and why; 3) the use of ICTs by different age cohorts as part of their livelihoods strategies; 4) the role of ICTs in influencing the livelihoods of the poor; 5) what effects, if any, does use of these resources have on vulnerability, livelihoods and value of assets; and 6) whether or not ICT services can be improved in relation to their usage and effects. The study also made a comparative analysis of the use of ICTs by different groups based on age, location, gender and ethnicity. This study was conducted for a period of four months from October 2006 to January 2007, in three different districts (Bagamoyo, Moshi Rural and Njombe). The findings from this study reveal that ICTs commonly used by the rural poor in the selected districts are radio, mobile phone and TV. Development of ICTs is a result of a number of interventions by government, NGOs, development partners and the private sector, and this has impacted on the livelihoods of the rural poor. Survey results confirmed this by revealing that ICTs contributed to improving rural livelihoods through improved businesses (17%), increased access to education (3%), ease of communications (50%) and increased access to key information (30%). The output of this study is expected to inform policymakers as well as other stakeholders, such as development partners, civil society and the private sector, on how ICTs can be adapted to help improve the livelihoods of poor individuals, families and communities in rural areas and increase their income opportunities and/or livelihood sources, thereby improving their chances of escaping from persistent poverty. It also documents what has already been implemented in Tanzania as far as ICTs and rural livelihoods are concerned, and the pertinent gaps in terms of improving the livelihoods of the rural poor by using ICT tools.

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Knowledge Map : Monitoring and Evaluation

2008-01, World Bank

Bias is a very real issue in most of the monitoring and evaluation work done of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education issues across the board. Such biases are often introduced at the monitoring and evaluation design stage, and include a lack of relevant and appropriate control groups, biases on the part of 'independent evaluators' (who often have a stake in seeing positive outcomes), and biases on the part of those evaluated (who may understandably seek to show that they have made good use of investments in ICTs to benefit education). The opportunity for such biases (which are usually positive biases) are especially acute where there a great reliance on self-reported data. There appears to be a lack of institutional and human resource capacity to carry out independent evaluations of ICT in education initiatives by local organizations in least development countries (LDCs) (which increases the cost of such activities and potentially decreases the likelihood that the results will be fed back into program design locally). A general lack of formal monitoring and evaluation activities inhibits the collection and dissemination of lessons learned from pilot projects and the useful formation of necessary feedback loops for such lessons learned to become an input into educational policy. Where such activities have occurred, they focus largely on program delivery, and are often specific to the project itself.

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Knowledge Map : Content and Curriculum Issues

2005-03, World Bank

At first glance, content issues related to information and communication technologies (ICTs) use in education might seem to some to be of minor importance. After all, access to the internet means access to an entire world of educational resources. Access to the internet provides access to seemingly endless sets of educational resources and indeed it does. However, experience shows that there is a dearth of educational resources in a format that makes them easily accessible and relevant to most teachers and learners in least development countries (LDCs), especially as they relate to a given country's current curriculum. Experience tells us that, unless electronic educational resources are directly related to the curriculum, and to the assessment methods used to evaluate educational outcomes (especially standardized testing), lack of appropriate and relevant educational content is actually an important barrier to ICT use in schools.

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Knowledge Map : School-Level Issues

2008-01, World Bank

Best practice exists for most issues relating to uses of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in education at the school level. Despite the wealth of documentation mentioned, little if any of this knowledge and information appears to have been incorporated into planning for and delivery of ICT in education initiatives in least development countries (LDCs), where the 'same old mistakes' are often made again and again. The greatest need related to this topic is for existing knowledge and information to be delivered to the relevant people in charge of ICT in education initiatives in LDCs, as well as those (in donor agencies, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector) who advise or contribute to such initiatives. Short workshops could be delivered to target countries preparing to scale up ICT in education initiatives to transmit such lesson learned.

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Knowledge Map : Teachers, Teaching and ICTs

2005-03, World Bank

Teacher training and on-going, relevant professional development are essential if benefits from investments in information and communication technologies (ICTs) are to be maximized. A shift in the role of a teacher utilizing ICTs to that of a facilitator does not obviate the need for teachers to serve as leaders in the classroom; traditional teacher leadership skills and practices are still important (especially those related to lesson planning, preparation, and follow-up). ICTs seen as tools to help teachers create more 'learner-centric' learning environments in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, research consensus holds that the most effective uses of ICT are those in which the teacher, aided by ICTs, challenge pupils' understanding and thinking, either through whole-class discussions or individual/small group work using ICTs. ICTs are seen as important tools to enable and support the move from traditional 'teacher-centric' teaching styles to more 'learner-centric' methods. Pedagogical practices of teachers using ICTs can range from only small enhancements of teaching practices, using what are essentially traditional methods, to more fundamental changes in their approach to teaching. ICTs can be used to reinforce existing pedagogical practices as well as to change the way teachers and students interact.