Items in this collection
PublicationWomen, Business and the Law 2024(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-03-04) World BankWomen, Business and the Law 2024 is the 10th in a series of annual studies measuring the enabling conditions that affect women’s economic opportunity in 190 economies. To present a more complete picture of the global environment that enables women’s socioeconomic participation, this year Women, Business and the Law introduces two new indicators—Safety and Childcare—and presents findings on the implementation gap between laws (de jure) and how they function in practice (de facto). This study presents three indexes: (1) legal frameworks, (2) supportive frameworks (policies, institutions, services, data, budget, and access to justice), and (3) expert opinions on women’s rights in practice in the areas measured. The study’s 10 indicators—Safety, Mobility, Workplace, Pay, Marriage, Parenthood, Childcare, Entrepreneurship, Assets, and Pension—are structured around the different stages of a woman’s working life. Findings from this new research can inform policy discussions to ensure women’s full and equal participation in the economy. The indicators build evidence of the critical relationship between legal gender equality and women’s employment and entrepreneurship. Data in Women, Business and the Law 2024 are current as of October 1, 2023. PublicationDjibouti Country Economic Memorandum, January 2024 - Djibouti Beyond the Ports and Bases: A Path to Prosperity for All(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-02-12) World BankOver the past two decades, Djibouti’s economy has demonstrated remarkable growth, reaching the status of lower middle-income country. However, this remarkable performance was achieved despite the enduring presence of persistent structural challenges, notably the high cost of electricity and telecommunications, and a fragile business environment. In this context, economic growth has predominantly relied on debt-financed public investment and private investments with limited linkages to the broader economy or job creation. Furthermore, the positive impacts of economic growth have not been evenly distributed across all sections of society, raising concerns about inclusive development. Moreover, Djibouti is increasingly vulnerable to climate change. As Djibouti embarks on its second phase of development, it is crucial to ensure that the benefits of growth are felt by all segments of society, particularly women and youth. Addressing these issues is crucial to foster a more conducive environment for businesses and stimulate economic growth. Recognizing these challenges, the Government of Djibouti has recalibrated its development strategy through the “Djibouti 2035 Vision” and the National Development Plan (NDP) for 2020-2024. By effectively addressing these priorities Djibouti can pave the way to a transformative path toward a more dynamic, inclusive, and poverty-reducing future. PublicationMauritania Human Capital Review: Building, Utilizing, and Protecting Human Capital for Inclusive and Resilient Economic Development(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-01-22) World BankThis human capital review assesses human capital outcomes in Mauritania and identifies actions to strengthen, utilize, and protect human capital. The government of Mauritania has demonstrated a strong commitment to placing human capital at the forefront of its long-term vision, with dedicated efforts focused on enhancing childhood health and education outcomes. Despite Mauritania’s positive initiatives, the country’s human capital wealth per capita has declined over the last 20 years; and it is imperative to look at ways to quickly reverse this situation. Children born today in Mauritania will only be 38 percent as productive when they grow up as they could have been had they enjoyed complete education and full health. Increasing the productivity of Mauritanians—both men and women—and thus allowing them to fully contribute to the development of their society entails transforming the human capital challenge to a human capital opportunity. This report takes a comprehensive, cross-sectoral approach and proposes recommendations for building, protecting, and utilizing human capital in Mauritania. PublicationUsing Clinical Vignettes to Measure Provider Skills and Strengthen Primary Health Care in Côte d’Ivoire(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-01-11) Chan, Benjamin; Diallo, Awa; Kouamé, Gnamien; Kouassi, SimpliceThis paper describes a program in Côte d’Ivoire designed to assess and enhance the competence of primary health care providers using clinical vignettes. The initiative provided training to district supervisors in 113 health districts on how to present patient scenarios to providers to assess their skills in history taking, physical exam, diagnosis, treatment and provision of patient advice. The clinical vignettes covered common topics in maternal and child health and infectious diseases. Several technical improvements were applied, including improved organization and clarity of questions, flexibility in treatment choices, options for management for rural areas and clearer standards for what information should be communicated to patients. The program also aimed to enhance content validity by mapping vignette questions against national practice guidelines. A training manual with role-playing exercises was developed. Supervisors conducted an initial sample of vignettes which revealed that only 36 percent of providers achieved a satisfactory score. The Project ECHO virtual learning platform was then used to address implementation challenges among district supervisors, who shared ideas for improvement. Learning sessions with midwives focused on managing preeclampsia. An electronic tablet tool was also designed for assessments, allowing data transfer to the national health information system, and key design features included offline assessment capability. The paper provides a comprehensive account of program design, challenges, and solutions, so that other countries interested in developing similar programs can learn from this experience. PublicationAlgeria Diagnostic on Climate and Disaster Risk Management(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-01-11) World BankThe Algeria Disaster Risk Management Diagnostic was developed as part of World Bank technical assistance to the Algerian government. The diagnostic offers a concise overview of the country’s disaster risk profile, delves into the macroeconomic implications of disasters, outlines Algeria’s advancements in disaster risk management (DRM), and highlights ongoing challenges within the DRM sector. This report aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of Algeria’s DRM sector and identify key priority areas to enhance the country’s resilience. This diagnostic was developed through a robust partnership between the World Bank and the National Delegation for Major Risks (DNRM) under the Algerian Ministry of Interior, Local Authorities and Territorial Development (MICLAT) from 2021 to 2023. It represents the culmination of an extensive review of over 500 documents, a comprehensive multi-stakeholder consultation workshop conducted in July 2021, and bilateral interviews held between March and October 2021 with the DNRM and all DRM stakeholders in Algeria. An initial version was completed in November 2021, which was further refined in 2022 and 2023 based on feedback received from Algerian counterparts through additional discussions, email correspondences, and recommendations from World Bank experts. PublicationCEMAC Economic Barometer, December 2023, Vol.5(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-01-09) World BankThe CEMAC Economic Barometer is a World Bank publication that presents a snapshot of recent developments in and the economic outlook of the CEMAC region, followed by a brief assessment at the country level. The Economic Barometer also includes a focused technical section on a theme of regional relevance. This edition’s special topic provides policy options for the CEMAC countries to take better advantage of future commodity price booms. PublicationTogo: Economic Inclusion of Youth and Women into High Potential Value Chains(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-12-18) Kroll, GuillaumeGood quality jobs are key to accelerating poverty reduction and strengthening social cohesion in Togo. While Togo has made significant progress in creating more good quality jobs, with robust growth performance in the past decade, several jobs-related challenges remain. Togo’s labor market is characterized by high levels of informality and underemployment, low productivity, and low-quality jobs. This difficult situation is compounded by the demographic trend of large cohorts of young people entering the labor market every year. As a result of this trend, it is estimated that, beginning in 2024, Togo will need to create 200,000 new jobs every year to absorb the influx of new entrants into the labor market. As described in the companion document to this report, Togo Jobs Diagnostic, a holistic approach to creating more and better jobs should be applied looking at the macro-, demand-, and supply side constraints. Solutions should focus on creating new jobs, improving job quality and productivity, and ensuring access to employment for vulnerable segments of the population. PublicationGender Disparities and Poverty: A Background Paper for the Togo Poverty and Gender Assessment 2022(Washington, DC, 2023-12-18) World BankGender gaps in Togo cut across many dimensions. Inequality starts in childhood, when girls are disadvantaged in access to schooling because of prevalent social norms and gender roles. It continues into adolescence, when a larger share of girls starts dropping out of school, unable to continue education because of a number of factors, including child marriage, adolescent pregnancy, and time use patterns shaped by gender norms. In adolescence and adulthood, women face the constraints of limited education and economic opportunities, restrictive gender roles that leave women little time for participation in the labor force, financial inequities, high levels of acceptance of violence against women, health risks, and a lack of agency and decision-making capacity. High prevalence rates of child marriage and adolescent fertility not only increase health risks for women but also reduce the amount of time they have to fully participate in education and in economic opportunities. This background paper to the Poverty and Gender Assessment Togo (2022) highlights the importance of addressing gender disparities to achieve continued poverty reduction in Togo. PublicationVibrant Cities - On the Bedrock of Stability, Prosperity, and Sustainability(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-12-07) Lall, Somik V.; Kaw, Jon Kher; Shilpi, Forhad; Murray, Sally BethHow will the world’s developing cities become vibrant—capable of meeting the climate, social, and economic challenges of tomorrow? Vibrant cities offer firms and households high expectations for good returns on investments, for a sustainable and resilient future, and for dynamic and inclusive growth. Cities thrive not only by increasing incomes and wealth for a select few but by improving common welfare through the equitable provision of basic services and opportu¬nities. To do this, tomorrow’s vibrant cities will be: 1.Resilient and low carbon—Limiting greenhouse gas emissions, reducing vulnerability to climate related hazards, and rebounding from disasters and pandemics. 2.Inclusive—Meeting basic needs for all residents, while enabling all to aspire realistically to a bet¬ter life through investment in skills and through equitable access to job opportunities. 3.Productive—Driving economic growth, creating jobs, boosting incomes, and financing critical social and infrastructure investments. The report provides new evidence, analysis, and policy insights to advance green, resilient, and inclusive urban development—drawing on the latest thinking in spatial urban development and public economics. While spotlighting the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA), it offers general insights for city and country leaders around the world. In doing so, it lays the foundations to shore up our technical assistance and policy engagements for urban development in MENA and elsewhere through a new policy framework—inform, support, and protect. PublicationCentral African Republic Poverty Assessment 2023: A Road Map Towards Poverty Reduction in the Central African Republic(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-12-06) World BankThis report — the Central African Republic’s (CAR’s) first ever poverty assessment — draws on unparalleled microdata to propose practical strategies for lifting Central Africans out of poverty. Against the backdrop of a wide range of development challenges — including persistent low growth, conflict and displacement, andthe increasing threats posed by climate change –CAR urgently needs policies for reducing poverty. This report draws primarily on the 2021 Enquête Harmonisée sur le Conditions de Vie des Ménages (EHCVM), the first household survey suitable for poverty measurement conducted in CAR in more than a decade, to try and guidesuch policies. The report provides CAR’s headline poverty and inequality statistics, using the EHCVM’s unique sampling strategy to cover internally displaced persons (IDPs). The analysis goes beyond considerations of monetary poverty alone, assessing the extent of non-monetary deprivation in CAR, examining constraints onhuman capital development, and exploring the role that livelihoods — especially in agriculture — can play in lifting people out of poverty. Using geospatial data, the results are also linked to indicators of physical access to schools and health facilities as well as key elements of basic infrastructure. This Executive Summary highlights the poverty assessment’s key findings and outlines the policies that can kickstart CAR’s pathway towards poverty reduction.