Other Social Protection Study

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  • Publication
    Rethinking Social Protection in South Asia: Toward Progressive Universalism
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-07-08) Leon Solano, Rene; Alaref, Jumana; Dorfman, Mark; Majoka, Zaineb; Sabbih, Mostafa Amir; Lorenzo, Elizabeth Mata
    Amid increasing and overlapping crises as well as mega-trends such as demographic transitions and technological advancements, it is important to re-examine the role and delivery of social protection in South Asia. Against this backdrop, the report "Rethinking Social Protection in South Asia: Toward Progressive Universalism" argues that, while the region has made significant progress in the provision of social protection, substantial challenges persist. Countries in South Asia need to better equip people, especially the poor and vulnerable, to effectively manage life-cycle risks and cope with shocks. Thus, the publication proposes that the region adopts universal social protection as an ultimate development objective. This entails the establishment of adaptive systems that ensure access to social protection for all whenever and however they need it. In the short to medium-term, the region should engage in progressive universalism, a phased approach that focuses first on providing support to the poor, and gradually continues with the economically vulnerable and the non-poor. In doing so, progressive universalism in South Asia should pay particular attention to the needs of children, youth and women, demographic groups that have been traditionally underserved by the region’s existing social protection systems. Since a large majority of people in South Asia is working in the informal sector, progressive universalism of social protection in the region is also intrinsically linked to the specific needs of informal workers. To inform the achievement of progressive universalism, the report puts forward a 4-pillar framework with a set of recommendations that are fiscally sensitive, and which seek to promote equity, build resilience, and increase opportunities for all.
  • Publication
    Understanding and Building Indigenous Peoples Resilience to Climate Shocks
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-07-02) World Bank
    Indigenous Peoples (IPs) are resilient. Despite multiple and persistent threats over centuries- IPs across the world are sustaining their peoples, cultures, and ways of life while making significant contributions to the sustainability of the planet. They have faced shocks ranging from the forced dispossession of, and displacement from their ancestral lands to the undermining of their cultures and knowledge through the imposition of foreign political, social and economic systems and values. However, at a global level there is a growing recognition of the importance of Indigenous knowledge and cultural practices in the sustainable use, management and conservation of natural resources. As will be demonstrated through this Framework, Indigenous knowledge and practices are essential not only for resource conservation, but also for their own resilience and for global climate action. The work to produce this Framework has emerged from a desire to improve global knowledge and capacity to support IPs resilience in a manner respectful of their rights, priorities and values. Given the limited understanding of the key drivers of IPs’ resilience, coupled with a growing need for climate adaptation, it is urgent to further understand, articulate, and incorporate IPs’ voices and perspectives within discussions around climate change and resilience. By doing so, this Framework aims to both inform WB financing and policy advice while also serving as a global public good to bolster those drivers and enablers that support IPs’ resilience while safeguarding against factors that could undermine the same.
  • Publication
    Unseen Green Jobs: A Study on Informal Waste Workers in Vientiane Capital, Lao PDR
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-21) World Bank
    Municipal solid waste management is an increasingly important priority in Vientiane Capital, Lao PDR’s Capital City. Municipal solid waste management practices in Vientiane Capital are rapidly evolving, and various actors and stakeholders are providing key support to improve service coverage in collection, transportation, and disposal. A key group of actors driving waste recovery in Vientiane Capital is the informal waste workers (IWWs). The work of IWWs reduces the amount of waste that ends up in landfills and this helps to extend the lifetime of landfills and promotes a circular economy. In addition, the role of IWWs activities is evident in their contribution to filling the limited financial investment, infrastructure, and human resource gaps that local governments face in operating waste management. This study was conducted by the World Bank to support the Lao government develop a more comprehensive information-base and understanding of IWWs in Vientiane Capital. The primary objective of the study was to assess and analyze the working and livelihood conditions and waste recycling practices of the IWWs ecosystems in Vientiane Capital. The study was designed to enhance understanding of IWWs’ ecosystem, livelihoods, working conditions, and recycling practices in Vientiane Capital. Supported by the World Bank, it provides relevant findings and recommendations for the Lao government to develop evidence-based policies and investment in municipal solid waste management and social protection for IWWs. The study focused on IWWs in Vientiane Capital, the capital city of Laos. Five categories of IWWs were researched: (1) Informal Street Waste Pickers (ISWPs); informal waste pickers working at the KM32 landfill site (WP32s); (3) waste collectors; (4) waste truck drivers; and (5) junk shops.
  • Publication
    The Welfare of Syrian Households after a Decade of Conflict
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-30) World Bank
    Over the past decade, violent conflict has dramatically increased globally. By 2030, it is estimated that countries affected by fragility, conflict and violence will be home to up to two-thirds of the world’s extreme poor. The consequences of conflict on a country’s development are profound, affecting a wide range of outcomes both directly and indirectly. Several studies have shown how conflict affects a country’s growth, exacerbates poverty and hunger, and disrupts service delivery, ultimately leading to a deterioration of health and education outcomes. Assessing the impact of conflict is often hindered by data constraints. Information on the profile and welfare of populations in fragile and conflict-affected countries is severely constrained by data availability, as is the understanding of the immediate and long-term welfare consequences of conflict. The report aims to provide an assessment of some of the welfare consequences of the conflict in Syria. To the extent possible, given existing data limitations, the analysis presented in this report tries to highlight changes in selected welfare outcomes between the pre-conflict period (2000–10), and the summer of 2022, when the latest nationally representative survey was conducted under the Humanitarian Needs Assessment Programme (HNAP).1 The analysis presented in this report further highlights the important role that humanitarian agencies play not only in providing vital assistance to populations in emergency situations, but also in collecting data in challenging environments. Beside informing humanitarian operations, data collected by humanitarian actors can effectively be used to generate knowledge public goods along the humanitarian-development nexus. This report is structured as follows: Section 1 provides an overview of the Syrian conflict, aimed at providing the background context for the analysis presented in Sections 2, 3, and 4, which assess the impact of conflict on the demographic profile of the Syrian population, and on its labor market and human capital outcomes. Section 5 provides an assessment and profile of Syrian population welfare, both in terms of monetary poverty and non-monetary (multidimensional) outcomes, while Section 6 builds on the findings of the report to provide concluding remarks.
  • Publication
    Investing in Human Capital in Botswana: A Framework for a Coordinated Multi-Sectoral Approach
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-30) Monchuk, Victoria; Dulvy, Elizabeth Ninan; Malik, Saima; Franz, Jutta; Mamba, Faith Makhosazana Phelakwakhe; Kabubei, Kenneth Munge; Zafar, Usama
    Botswana has sprinted to become an upper-middle income (UMIC) economy largely thanks to strong institutions and mineral resource revenue. Living conditions have steadily improved since independence as the wealth from diamond discoveries has helped lay the foundations for growth and development together with investments in infrastructure and human development and the building of strong government institutions. Social public service delivery has expanded to provide large parts of the vast country with clean water, electricity, and sanitation; and basic education and health outcomes have steadily improved thereby strengthening the wellbeing of most Botswana. But this extractives-driven growth model is reaching its limits to further sustain poverty reduction and inclusive growth. The average economic growth has been declining since 2010 and has further decelerated and turned more volatile since 2016. Poverty and inequality rates also remain inordinately high for a country of its income level. Botswana’s projected extreme poverty rate for 2019 (13.5 percent) is more than four times higher than comparators of similar Gross Domestic Product (GDP) levels and is further expected to stagnate. Inequality is amongst the highest in the world. With decelerating growth, an undiversified economy, low human capital outcomes, and higher-than-expected poverty, Botswana’s high-income country (HIC) goal appears distant. The government has demonstrated a strong commitment to human capital development with high levels of investments in education, health and social protection Botswana spends significant government resources as a share of GDP on health (4.8 percent), education (7.1 percent) and social protection (2.6 percent) compared to many of its UMIC neighbors in the region that also have high levels of poverty, and inequality and high burdens of disease. Human Development is also centrally placed in the most recent National Development Plan (number 11, 2017-2023).
  • Publication
    Jobs for All - Unlocking Inclusive Growth in Kenya: Kenya Jobs Diagnostic
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-29) World Bank
    This Kenya Jobs Diagnostic discusses Kenya’s demographic transition and its impact on the labor force and economic growth. It highlights the importance of creating a favorable environment for the young labor force to drive innovation and growth. However, if there is a mismatch between labor supply and good job opportunities, it can lead to unemployment, poverty, and social unrest. This jobs diagnostic first analyses the employment situation in Kenya, where the majority of the population works in the agriculture and services sectors. Agriculture has the lowest quality of employment. There is large heterogeneity in the quality of employment within the services sectors, with the education, health, and social security subsector having some of the best quality of employment, while the trade subsector has the second-lowest employment quality after agriculture. Gender disparities continue to exist in the labor market, with women earning less than men and facing challenges in terms of labor force participation and quality of jobs.
  • Publication
    Making Pension Savings Easy and Efficient for Informal Sector Workers - Learning from Kenya’s Haba Haba Pilot
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-21) World Bank
    Haba Haba, which means “bit by bit” in Swahili, is a voluntary pension scheme in Kenya for workers in informal employment and promises to be a scheme through which they can slowly but surely save for their old age. The scheme, administered by the National Social Security Fund (NSSF) was launched as a pilot in 2019. Haba Haba allows for easy, anytime, anywhere savings by informal economy workers. Registration, contributions, and access can be handled via mobile phone by dialing USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data) *303# or by contacting the NSSF via WhatsApp. The registration process only requires an individual’s first and last names, and government identification (ID) number. Contributions can be paid in person at NSSF offices or through the mobile money platform M-Pesa.
  • Publication
    Scaling Up Social Assistance Where Data is Scarce - Opportunities and Limits of Novel Data and AI
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-16) Okamura, Yuko; Ohlenburg, Tim; Tesliuc, Emil
    During the recent Covid-19 shock (2020/21), most countries used cash transfers to protect the livelihoods of those affected by the pandemic or by restrictions on mobility or economic activities, including the poor and vulnerable. While a large majority of countries mobilized existing programs and/or administrative databases to expand support to new beneficiaries, countries without such programs or databases were severely limited in their capacity to respond. Leveraging the Covid-19 shock as an opportunity to leapfrog and innovate, various low-income countries used new sources of data and computational methods to rapidly develop -level welfare-targeted programs. This paper reviews both crisis-time programs and regular social protection operations to distill lessons that could be applicable for both contexts. It examines three programs from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Togo, and Nigeria that used geospatial and mobile phone usage data and/or artificial intelligence (AI), particularly machine learning methods to estimate the welfare of applicants for individual-level welfare targeting and deliver emergency cash transfers in response to the pandemic. Additionally, it reviews two post-pandemic programs, in Lome, Togo and in rural Lilongwe, Malawi, that incorporated those innovations into the more traditional delivery infrastructure and expanded their monitoring and evaluation framework. The rationale, key achievements, and main challenges of the various approaches are considered, and cases from other countries, as well as innovations beyond targeting, are taken into account. The paper concludes with policy recommendations and promising research topics to inform the discourse on leveraging novel data sources and estimation methods for improved social assistance in and beyond emergency settings.
  • Publication
    SAFE: Gender-Based Violence Services for Women in Human Mobility in Central America - Synthesis Report
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-16) World Bank
    The Survivor-centered Accessibility Framework Evaluation (SAFE), supported by the State and Peacebuilding Fund (SPF), comprehensively examines access barriers faced by women and girls in transit who are survivors of GBV across Central America. It focuses on the physical, social, legal, and institutional barriers they face during their displacement journey, and particularly centers on the transit experience, indistinctively of whether this transit is regular, irregular, voluntary, or forced. This report summarizes work conducted over two years and brings to light the multifarious barriers women and girls face in reporting and seeking GBV services in the region. To address these challenges, this work provides targeted interventions and policy recommendations that countries could implement to ensure effective and accessible GBV services for women and girls in transit, and to improve their safety and well-being during their journeys. SAFE provides countries with a regional public good and represents a significant step forward in understanding and addressing human mobility and GBV in Central America. For the first time, it introduces a continuous highly detailed map of migratory and forced displacement routes, offering an unprecedented level of resolution and insight which combines the best of satellite imagery with expert local knowledge. This mapping is part of an ambitious effort to systematize information, enhancing the comprehension of the complexities and dynamics of human mobility in the region. Recognizing human mobility and GBV as regional issues, SAFE underscores the need for regional solutions, involving cross-border collaboration and shared strategies. Importantly, this initiative documents the voices and views of women themselves. By incorporating their perspectives, the study sheds light on unique challenges and experiences faced by women in transit, ensuring that the solutions proposed are more inclusive and responsive to their needs. This work emphasizes collective responsibility and cooperation in addressing issues of human mobility, GBV, and development.
  • Publication
    Mainstreaming Universal Accessibility in Urban Infrastructure Projects in Yemen: Practical Guidelines for Yemen
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-08) World Bank
    People who experience some form of cognitive, intellectual, psychosocial, sensorial and or physical disabilities are particularly vulnerable to poverty and suffer disproportionately from social and economic stigma. The intensification of inequalities affects persons with disabilities, their caregivers, and communities. Conflicts, natural disasters and extreme climate events, aggravated by climate change, disproportionately put the lives and livelihoods of persons with disabilities at risk and deteriorate their living conditions. This guide aims to improve the way in which universal accessibility (UA) is considered in the built environment in Yemen. Ensuring the accessibility of basic infrastructure and services is the primary step towards enabling persons with disabilities to fully participate in society and to access economic, educational, and vocational opportunities. This guide provides practical instructions for applying UA principles at all stages of a construction and infrastructure investment project, starting with the planning and programming phase.