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PublicationPrivate Participation in Transport : Lessons from Recent Experience in Europe and Central Asia(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-06) Monsalve, CarolinaFacing fiscal constraints, many governments in Central and Eastern Europe and Southeastern Europe have pursued private finance for transport infrastructure more to move investments off budget than to improve efficiency and services. Results have been mixed and suggest a need to focus more on public-private partnerships (PPPs) that can achieve value for money. Today's economic environment will reduce the potential for PPP projects in the short term. Some PPP projects at an advanced stage of procurement may need additional public support, while ambitious projects may need to be phased to reduce their scale to what the market can absorb. PublicationNew Needs for Technical Assistance : Responding to the Effects of the Financial Crisis on Private Participation in Infrastructure(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-06) Leigland, James; Russell, HenryIn developing countries the global financial crisis is leading to serious difficulties for infrastructure projects with private participation. In some cases governments are responding by simplifying their project approval processes or by substituting public for private financing. Even if markets recover quickly, these responses could pose significant risks. Containing those risks and dealing with the effects of the financial crisis calls for specialized technical assistance in assessing contingent liabilities, maintaining existing assets, assisting projects in distress, and maintaining a project pipeline. PublicationWhat Drives Private Sector Exit from Infrastructure? Economic Crises and Other Factors in the Cancellation of Private Infrastructure Projects in Developing Countries(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-03) Harris, Clive; Pratap, Kumar V.The private sector exits only a fraction of private infrastructure projects before the contract ends. Yet such cancellations can have a sustained impact on a country's program of public-private partnerships, reducing the private sector's confidence in the government's commitment as well as the government's confidence in the robustness and "value for money" of these arrangements. Econometric analysis shows that macroeconomic shocks nearly double the cancellation rate. As today's global financial crisis greatly increases the cost, and reduces the availability, of project financing, the number of cancellations could grow. That would have implications for the role public-private partnerships can play in meeting the infrastructure needs of developing countries. PublicationUnlocking Land Values to Finance Urban Infrastructure : Land-Based Financing Options for Cities(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-08) Peterson, George E.Raising capital to finance urban infrastructure is a challenge. One solution is to 'unlock' urban land values - such as by selling public lands to capture the gains in value created by investment in infrastructure projects. Land-based financing techniques are playing an increasingly important role in financing urban infrastructure in developing countries. They complement other capital financing approaches, such as local government borrowing, and can provide price signals that make the urban land market more efficient. PublicationWorldwide Trends in Private Participation in Roads : Growing Activity, Growing Government Support(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-05) Queiroz, Cesar; Izaguirre, Ada KarinaPrivate participation in roads revived strongly in developing countries in 2005-06. The activity was concentrated in green field projects and in Asia and Latin America. The main reason for the revival has been the willingness of governments to provide support needed to attract the private sector. Nevertheless, governments need to be aware of the potential risks of such support. And because of the monopolistic features of road projects, they also need to ensure good governance so that the public reaps the full benefits of the private sector's involvement. PublicationLifting Constraints to Public-Private Partnerships in South Asia(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2006-05) Bhatia, Bhavna; Gupta, NeerajToday policymakers increasingly recognize that public-private partnerships (PPPs) in infrastructure offer the most promise for developing infrastructure and improving services. Countries in South Asia face a dual challenge in infrastructure: many households and businesses lack access to services, and those that do have access suffer from unreliable and poor-quality service. This paper recommends minimizing restraints by: building consensus for PPPs, moving toward cost recovery, improving transparency, enhancing government capacity, fostering effective regulation, and easing financial constraints. PublicationIs the Public Sector Comparator Right for Developing Countries? Appraising Public-Private Projects in Infrastructure(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2006-04) Leigland, JamesAfrican officials have shown new interest in infrastructure projects involving private participation. But with so little experience with such projects, these officials often have limited knowledge about how best to assess their value for money. Some experts have suggested that developing countries use the method centering on the public sector comparator. But this method has come under criticism in some industrial countries. The debate about its use in the industrial world raises questions about whether it is appropriate in developing countries. This paper discusses: how the method works; what the problems are; what the U.K. reforms do; and what about developing countries.