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PublicationPrivate Sector Participation in Urban Rail : Getting the Structure Right(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2010-04) Menzies, Iain; Mandri-Perrott, CledanThere is growing interest in using rail transit, trams, metros, light rail, to solve urban transportation problems, particularly road congestion and air pollution. In developing urban rail projects, a range of major cities around the world have turned to public-private partnership models, to leverage both public and private resources and expertise. Dissecting the successes and failures of public-private urban rail schemes, this note examines how policy makers can best deal with the main risks involved in designing, procuring, and implementing such schemes. It also draws lessons on best practice in developing and managing contractual arrangements that can help ensure their success and sustainability. PublicationPrivate Participation in Transport : Lessons from Recent Experience in Europe and Central Asia(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-06) Monsalve, CarolinaFacing fiscal constraints, many governments in Central and Eastern Europe and Southeastern Europe have pursued private finance for transport infrastructure more to move investments off budget than to improve efficiency and services. Results have been mixed and suggest a need to focus more on public-private partnerships (PPPs) that can achieve value for money. Today's economic environment will reduce the potential for PPP projects in the short term. Some PPP projects at an advanced stage of procurement may need additional public support, while ambitious projects may need to be phased to reduce their scale to what the market can absorb. PublicationNew Needs for Technical Assistance : Responding to the Effects of the Financial Crisis on Private Participation in Infrastructure(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-06) Leigland, James; Russell, HenryIn developing countries the global financial crisis is leading to serious difficulties for infrastructure projects with private participation. In some cases governments are responding by simplifying their project approval processes or by substituting public for private financing. Even if markets recover quickly, these responses could pose significant risks. Containing those risks and dealing with the effects of the financial crisis calls for specialized technical assistance in assessing contingent liabilities, maintaining existing assets, assisting projects in distress, and maintaining a project pipeline. PublicationWhat Drives Private Sector Exit from Infrastructure? Economic Crises and Other Factors in the Cancellation of Private Infrastructure Projects in Developing Countries(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2009-03) Harris, Clive; Pratap, Kumar V.The private sector exits only a fraction of private infrastructure projects before the contract ends. Yet such cancellations can have a sustained impact on a country's program of public-private partnerships, reducing the private sector's confidence in the government's commitment as well as the government's confidence in the robustness and "value for money" of these arrangements. Econometric analysis shows that macroeconomic shocks nearly double the cancellation rate. As today's global financial crisis greatly increases the cost, and reduces the availability, of project financing, the number of cancellations could grow. That would have implications for the role public-private partnerships can play in meeting the infrastructure needs of developing countries. PublicationUnlocking Land Values to Finance Urban Infrastructure : Land-Based Financing Options for Cities(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-08) Peterson, George E.Raising capital to finance urban infrastructure is a challenge. One solution is to 'unlock' urban land values - such as by selling public lands to capture the gains in value created by investment in infrastructure projects. Land-based financing techniques are playing an increasingly important role in financing urban infrastructure in developing countries. They complement other capital financing approaches, such as local government borrowing, and can provide price signals that make the urban land market more efficient. PublicationWorldwide Trends in Private Participation in Roads : Growing Activity, Growing Government Support(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-05) Queiroz, Cesar; Izaguirre, Ada KarinaPrivate participation in roads revived strongly in developing countries in 2005-06. The activity was concentrated in green field projects and in Asia and Latin America. The main reason for the revival has been the willingness of governments to provide support needed to attract the private sector. Nevertheless, governments need to be aware of the potential risks of such support. And because of the monopolistic features of road projects, they also need to ensure good governance so that the public reaps the full benefits of the private sector's involvement. PublicationDoes the Private Sector Deliver on its Promises? Evidence from a Global Study in Water and Electricity(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2008-05) Gassner, Katharina; Popov, Alexander; Pushak, NataliyaIs private operation better than public when it comes to utilities; a recent global study funded by the World Bank and Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF) examines the effect of private sector participation in electricity distribution and water and sanitation services. Using a data set of more than 1,200 utilities in 71 developing and transition economies, the study finds that privately operated utilities convincingly outperform state-run ones in operational performance and labor productivity. PublicationDesigning and Using Public-Private Partnership Units in Infrastructure : Lessons from Case Studies Around the World(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2007-09) Sanghi, Apurva; Sundakov, Alex; Hankinson, DenzelThis note contends that public-private partnership (PPP) units for facilitating and managing infrastructure investments have existed for years in many developed countries. Driven in part by growing infrastructure investment, these units have also recently begun to proliferate in the developing world. While governments often seem eager to create such units, not everyone in the global PPP market is convinced of their value. An assessment of eight PPP units around the world examines whether these institutions have contributed to successful public-private partnerships-and if so, under what conditions. PublicationWhat it Takes to Lower Regulatory Risk in Infrastructure Industries : An Assessment and Benchmarking of Brazilian Regulators(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2007-09) Correa, PauloThis article points out that regulatory governance-how regulators manage concession contracts, or other public-private contractual arrangements and sector laws-can affect the private sector's perception of regulatory risk and thus the availability of private capital for infrastructure projects. Four key elements of the regulatory governance structure can reduce the risk of regulatory failure: political and financial autonomy, decision-making structures that reduce regulatory discretion, access to effective enforcement and other regulatory tools, and efficient rules of accountability. This note presents an analytical framework based on those four elements and applies it in assessing regulatory governance in Brazil. PublicationBig Challenges, Small States : Regulatory Options to Overcome Infrastructure Constraints(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2007-05) Ehrhardt, David; Oliver, ChloëSmall island economies face special challenges in providing affordable infrastructure services. Effective regulation can help, by encouraging providers to seek innovative solutions better suited for small and remote islands. But conventional regulation may be out of reach for small islands, requiring more money, competence, and independence than they have. Low-discretion rules and light or regional regulatory bodies may be good alternatives.