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Now showing 1 - 10 of 1868
  • Publication
    Jobs for All - Unlocking Inclusive Growth in Kenya: Kenya Jobs Diagnostic
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-29) World Bank
    This Kenya Jobs Diagnostic discusses Kenya’s demographic transition and its impact on the labor force and economic growth. It highlights the importance of creating a favorable environment for the young labor force to drive innovation and growth. However, if there is a mismatch between labor supply and good job opportunities, it can lead to unemployment, poverty, and social unrest. This jobs diagnostic first analyses the employment situation in Kenya, where the majority of the population works in the agriculture and services sectors. Agriculture has the lowest quality of employment. There is large heterogeneity in the quality of employment within the services sectors, with the education, health, and social security subsector having some of the best quality of employment, while the trade subsector has the second-lowest employment quality after agriculture. Gender disparities continue to exist in the labor market, with women earning less than men and facing challenges in terms of labor force participation and quality of jobs.
  • Publication
    Zambia Country Economic Memorandum, June 2024: Unlocking Productivity and Economic Transformation for Better Jobs
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-28) World Bank
    Zambia needs to increase productivity and accelerate economic transformation to achieve sustained and inclusive growth. Zambia’s debt resolution and ongoing reforms are expected to support macroeconomic stability and reignite private-sector investment. By October 2023, the Government of the Republic of Zambia (GRZ) reached an agreement with the Official Creditor’s Committee (OCC) on debt restructuring under the G20 Common Framework and, by late March 2024, it was announced that a deal was reached with bondholders. As of the end of the first quarter of 2024, the Zambian authorities are in the final phase of debt negotiations involving the other private lenders. Since 2021, the GRZ has launched an ambitious reform program. It saw the primary balance improve by 6.6 percentage points in 2022, bringing it to a surplus and cutting inflation by half. The authorities have introduced measures to boost private investment and have rebalanced the composition of government spending. This Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) discusses two pathways that can support Zambia’s productivity-enhancing economic transformation, generate better jobs, and deliver sustained and inclusive growth. Economies transform when more people join the labor force and find jobs, become more productive in them, or reallocate to more productive jobs. These factors cause average labor productivity to rise with labor incomes. But in Zambia, productivity has been on a declining trend, and only the capital-intensive mining sector has seen significant labor productivity increases. Raising the productivity of agriculture is the first pathway for tackling Zambia’s development challenges (Chapter 2). It has enormous potential to drive poverty reduction, but expensive and distortive support programs, coupled with increasing climate hazards, constrain productivity growth and dampen opportunities to diversify beyond maize. The second pathway involves Zambia making critical economy-wide reforms to unlock broad-based private sector productivity growth and increase its role in driving jobs and economic transformation (Chapter 3). Two background papers that take deep dives into these two themes are published alongside this report.
  • Publication
    What Drives Citizens’ Trust in State Institutions ? Large-Scale Survey Evidence on Process and Outcome-Based Trust in Morocco
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-23) Zovighian, Diane; Cloutier, Mathieu; Bove, Abel
    What drives citizen’s trust in state institutions There are longstanding debates on the pathways towards institutional trust: is trust driven by citizen’s perceptions of policy outcomes or by their perceptions of the integrity and credibility of policy processes This paper investigates this question using data from a large-scale survey of 5,916 Moroccans and argues that process matters more than outcomes for trust-building. The paper first shows that Moroccans’ trust in institutions is strongly associated with positive evaluations of policy outcomes—including satisfaction with the delivery of public goods and services and with government’s economic performance. It then provides evidence that institutional trust is even more strongly and robustly associated with the quality of governance processes, and in particular with the perception that institutions function with integrity and make credible commitments. Going beyond policy variables, the paper also provides complementary evidence that institutional trust is contingent on individual-level social capital, including social trust, and socio-demographic factors. The conclusion briefly lays out the policy implications of this research and areas for future investigation.
  • Publication
    A Triple Win: Fiscal and Welfare Benefits of Economic Participation by Syrian Refugees in Jordan (Overview booklet)
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-21) Hoogeveen, Johannes; Obi, Chinedu; editors
    "A Triple Win: Fiscal and Welfare Benefits of Economic Participation by Syrian Refugees in Jordan" is the result of a joint effort by the World Bank and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to explore the welfare of Syrian refugees in Jordan and to review the aid that refugees receive and their participation in the economy. The analysis shows how deprivation among Syrian refugees is elevated, more so for refugees living in host communities. This presents a puzzle because most refugees opt to live outside of the camps, even though they have the option to stay in camps. Why do people voluntarily expose themselves to a higher risk of poverty? The volume finds an answer in the desire of refugees for freedom and autonomy. "A Triple Win" then turns to humanitarian aid that is found important for reducing refugee poverty, but insufficient as poverty levels remain high. After considering the scope for efficiency gains, the conclusion is that at current levels of aid it will not be possible to lift all Syrian refugees out of poverty unless another solution is found. Increasing the financial autonomy of refugees provides the needed solution. Syrian refugees already access Jordan’s labor market, but their access is constrained. Those who work tend to labor in less remunerative jobs, often in the informal sector. Despite this, the incomes earned by refugees exceed aid by a factor of two. The analysis goes on to show that refugee economic participation already reduces the need for aid by US$850 million per year. This reduction could increase if labor market restrictions were eased. The savings that would be generated could then be repurposed. This approach defines the triple win: refugees gain financial autonomy, humanitarian aid is reserved for those most in need, and Jordan receives additional resources to invest in its economic development.
  • Publication
    Türkiye at the Frontier: Human Capital Utilization, Jobs and Equity - Technical Diagnostic
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-07) World Bank
    Türkiye’s early human capital foundations have paved the way for poverty reduction and labor force participation, today facing new multi-dimensional challenges. Türkiye’s investments have historically helped diversify and increase aggregate growth, propelling it to upper middle-income status. Yet relative to overall growth more recently, human capital utilization in terms of jobs has not necessarily kept pace. Over half the population remains either out of the labor force or employed in informal, relatively low-paying jobs, most of whom have been women. Economic vulnerabilities remain following the Coronavirus pandemic (COVID) and the 2023 earthquakes in southeastern Türkiye, compounded by long-term effects of global financial crises and regional conflicts since 2008. Helping vulnerable workers, largely comprising women, adapt to a changing labor market will be needed to sustain a broad, productive workforce for future broad-based growth. As Türkiye embarks on its forthcoming Twelfth Five-Year National Development Plan, a diagnostic of human capital and jobs programs and policies in terms of gender equity is timely for informing future needs. In addition, a review of Türkiye’s experience will equally help provide global knowledge for other countries facing similar challenges. This note aims to assess human capital utilization in terms of inclusive jobs and gender equity in Türkiye towards broadening economic resilience following shocks.
  • Publication
    Rules and Regulations, Managerial Time and Economic Development
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-06) Tamkoç, M. Nazim; Ventura, Gustavo
    This paper documents that senior plant managers in less-developed countries spend more time dealing with government rules and regulations than their counterparts in richer countries. These facts are interpreted through the lens of a span-of-control growth model, in which top managers run heterogeneous production plants, employing middle managers as well as production workers. The model implies that increasing the time burden on top management leads to equilibrium changes in wages, occupational sorting, the size distribution of production plants and ultimately, to a reduction in aggregate output. These consequences hold even when the time burden is symmetric across all plants. Quantitative results show that increasing the burden on managers’ time from the levels observed in Denmark to the higher levels observed in poorer countries have substantial consequences. Imposing the average time spent on regulations in Argentina reduces aggregate output by about 1/3 and mean plant size by more than 5 employees. Results contribute to rationalizing differences in plant size and output across countries via a channel hitherto unexplored in the literature.
  • Publication
    How to Harness Local Investors in Emerging Markets: The Example of Local Pension Funds
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-02) Davis, Richard; Rusconi, Robert; Levine, Aaron
    There is a significant gap in financing sustainable development in emerging economies to meet the climate commitments under the Paris Agreement and to fulfill the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) estimates that more than US$4 trillion of financing is needed annually. While much of the capital required will come from OECD-country sources, which hold 80% of worldwide financial assets, there is an untapped pool of local investments to be drawn on. This paper offers three practical directions for policymakers in order to make the promise of local investors contributing to sustainable development a reality. While this level of focus will require concerted effort to implement, it increases the opportunity for local investors to play a crucial role in closing the financing gap.
  • Item
    World Bank Group President Ajay Banga’s Remarks at IDA for Africa Heads of State Summit
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-29) Banga, Ajay
    These remarks were delivered by the World Bank Group President Ajaya Banga at the IDA for Africa Heads of State Summit on April 29, 2024. The main idea revolves around the potential for transformative change in Africa through strategic investments and development assistance. The President emphasizes the need for unity and common ground among African leaders to address challenges and unlock the continent's potential. Drawing parallels with successful development stories from other regions, the document highlights the importance of investing in people, building infrastructure, and supporting job-generating industries. It calls for a collaborative effort involving governments, the international community, and the private sector to realize Africa's economic future and create opportunities for prosperity and progress.
  • Publication
    Taking Stock April 2024: Promoting Innovative Entrepreneurship
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-23) World Bank
    Viet Nam’s economy slowed sharply in 2023, with three key drivers of growth – exports, consumption, and private domestic investment – is losing momentum. On the production side, the slowdown was led by industrial production. In the first quarter of 2024, the economy registered 5.66 percent (y/y) growth, mostly driven by the low base effect in exports, with consumption and investment recovering more gradually. Employment growth slowed and real average monthly incomes stagnated. Viet Nam’s external position improved in 2023, underpinned by a large current account surplus. Viet Nam needs to increase domestic private sector productivity to realize its ambitious target of becoming a high-income country by 2045, and innovative entrepreneurship is essential to drive this growth. Improving the conditions for entry and growth of innovative startups, through development of a conducive entrepreneurial ecosystem, can help build a pipeline of highly productive firms in new and established sectors.
  • Publication
    Ukraine - Human Development Update in Focus: Disability and Inclusion
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-04-04) World Bank
    The adverse impact of Russia’s invasion on persons with disabilities is the main focus of this human development update. It looks at how the Government of Ukraine is strengthening the protection of vulnerable groups to ensure inclusive service delivery.