Doing Business Regional, National, and Subnational Reports

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This collection holds the regional, national, and subnational serial publications.

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Paying Taxes 2016

2016, World Bank Group, PwC

Since the first edition of paying taxes, and especially following the global financial crisis, the media, the public, and many policymakers have become increasingly interested in how international tax systems operate. Most recently the focus has been the work initiated by the G20 and carried out by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS). The BEPS agenda however does not consider what some commentators will consider to be equally important issues for developing economies, including how to enhance the administrative capacities of tax authorities, reduce the informal economy, and corruption while promoting growth and investment. The paying taxes study, with its emphasis on efficient tax compliance and straightforward tax regimes provides valuable insight into many of these developing country issues. It can be an invaluable source of information to decision-makers, providing an independent assessment of whether interventions are resulting in a simplified compliance process for a standardized domestic model business. Governments also often find it useful to be able to learn from the experience of economies in their peer group and to consider whether a measure adopted elsewhere may be relevant for the economy.

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Doing Business 2014 Regional Profile : Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa

2013-10-29, World Bank, International Finance Corporation

This regional profile presents the Doing Business indicators for economies in Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It also shows the regional average, the best performance globally for each indicator and data for the following comparator regions: Europe and Central Asia, Economic Community of West African States, Middle East and North Africa, Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa, and OECD High Income. The data in this report are current as of June 1, 2013, except for the paying taxes indicators, which cover the period January to December 2012. Regional Doing Business reports capture differences in business regulations and their enforcement across countries in a single region. They provide data on the ease of doing business, rank each location, and recommend reforms to improve performance in each of the indicator areas. The report sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 11 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts, resolving insolvency and employing workers. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 189 economies, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, over time. The data set covers 47 economies in Sub-Saharan Africa, 33 in Latin America and the Caribbean, 25 in East Asia and the Pacific, 25 in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, 20 in the Middle East and North Africa and 8 in South Asia, as well as 31 OECD high-income economies. The indicators are used to analyze economic outcomes and identify what reforms have worked, where and why.

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Doing Business Regional Profile 2012: Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa

2012, World Bank, International Finance Corporation

Doing business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 10 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency. In a series of annual reports doing business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 183 economies, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, over time. This economy profile presents the doing business indicators for the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. The data in this report are current as of June 1, 2011 (except for the paying taxes indicators, which cover the period January-December 2010).

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Paying Taxes 2015: The Global Picture

2015, World Bank Group, PwC

This is the tenth year that the paying taxes indicator has been part of the World Bank Doing Business project. The journey over the period of the study has been an eventful and interesting one and the economic backdrop continues to present a challenging environment for governments as they consider their future fiscal policies. Globalization, the march of technological change, changing demographic patterns and the persistent challenges that continue around climate change and the environment all come together to generate a turbulent mix of issues which have a significant impact on fiscal policy and the associated tax systems. Against this backdrop, this year the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has put forward proposals for changing the international tax rules to modernize them for today s globalized business and to address concerns over base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS). It is apparent that these proposals are already changing the way some tax authorities apply existing rules, leading to new and increased uncertainty for business, at least in the short term. Alongside all of this however there are two simple, mutually supportive objectives for governments; to ensure that there are sufficient public revenues for the future, to lay a foundation for sustained improvements in productivity, while at the same time incentivising investment and economic growth. This year the authors have also focused more on the compliance aspects of the information that authors collect through the study. Stable tax systems and strong tax administrations are important for businesses, helping them to operate in an environment where the tax treatment of transactions is predictable, and where governments operate transparently. The paying taxes study provides an unrivalled global database which supports an ongoing research program.

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Paying Taxes 2013 : The Global Picture

2013, World Bank, International Finance Corporation, PricewaterhouseCoopers

The paying taxes indicators (the total tax rate, the time to comply and the number of payments) have now been part of the World Bank Group Doing Business project for eight years, monitoring the changes and reforms made to tax regimes around the world. The simple aim of the study is to supply business leaders and policy makers with robust data to enable tax systems to be compared on a like for like basis, and to help inform the dialogue which underlies the development of tax policy. The study is unique in that it now not only covers 185 economies, but it also provides an insight into how tax systems have developed over a significant period of time, using a consistent methodology. The author has focused on the trends that the Paying Taxes data show, both at the global level, and also by geographical region. Globally it is now easier for firms to pay taxes than eight years ago. Both the administrative burden and the average tax rates have decreased over this period. The studies for some time have shown a trend toward a lowering of corporate tax rates and a broadening of the tax base. In last year's publication the pace of reform continued but with an increasing focus on improving the administrative aspects of the tax system. This year's results are more complex; administrative reforms have continued, but the fall in average global tax rates seems to have stalled; this may indicate that tax rates are stabilizing as the pressure on public finances to grow.

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Paying Taxes 2012: The Global Picture

2012, World Bank, International Finance Corporation, PricewaterhouseCoopers

The objectives of the study are to provide data which can be compared between economies on a like-for-like basis; to facilitate the benchmarking of tax systems within relevant economic and geographical groupings, which can provide an opportunity to learn from peer group economies; and to enable an in-depth analysis of the results which can be used to help identify good practices and possible reforms. The private sector plays an essential role in contributing to economic growth and prosperity. Companies contribute to socio-economic development by employing workers, improving the skills and knowledge base, buying from local suppliers and providing products and services that improve people's lives. They also contribute to government revenues through generating and paying taxes. The paying taxes study is unique because it generates a set of indicators that measure the world's tax systems from the point of view of business and also because it covers the full range of taxes paid in 183 economies, measuring how business complies with the different tax laws and regulations in each economy.

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Paying Taxes 2014 : The Global Picture

2013-11-19, PricewaterhouseCoopers, World Bank Group

Paying Taxes 2014 looks at tax regimes in 189 economies as part of the Doing Business series. The period covered by the study, 2004 to 2012, has seen the end of a sustained period of economic growth, a severe recession and a slow recovery. Governments continue to be under the pressure balance the need to attract investment and foster growth while generating tax revenues. This report finds that governments continue to reform their tax systems despite global economic uncertainty, with 32 economies having taken steps from June last year through May 2013 to make it easier and cost less for small and medium businesses to pay taxes. The report finds that the most common tax reform undertaken by 11 economies is the introduction or improvement of electronic filing, eliminating the need for 74 separate tax payments and reducing compliance time by almost 200 hours in total. On average around the world it now takes our case study company 268 hours to comply with its taxes, it makes 26.7 payments and has an average total tax rate of 43.1 percent. The range for each sub-indicator is very wide. The number of payments ranges from 3 in Hong Kong SAR, China and Saudi Arabia to 71 in República Bolivariana de Venezuela. The time to comply is lowest in the United Arab Emirates where it takes 12 hours to deal with the taxes that apply, all of which are labor taxes. The highest number of hours is still taken by our company in Brazil. It takes 2,600 hours with more than half of this time being spent on consumption taxes. Until 2008, 7 of the 8 geographical regions covered in the report had consistently recorded a fall in their average total tax rate. This changed in 2009 when only 5 regions recorded a fall. This fell to 3 in 2011 and in the latest study only Africa and South America show a fall in the total tax rate while all other regions show an increase apart from Asia Pacific and EU and EFTA where rates of 36.6 percent and 42.5 percent respectively have been maintained. Over the nine years of the study the total tax rate attributable to profit taxes have fallen faster than that for labor taxes so that labor taxes are now the largest element of the total tax rate. While the average time to comply has fallen by 55 hours over the 9 years of the study, the rate of decline has slowed dramatically in the most recent period, falling by only 1 hour between 2011 and 2012. Over the nine years of study, the greatest improvement on time has been seen for labor taxes (23 hours). The number of hours has fallen by 19 hours for consumption taxes and by 13 hours for corporate income tax.

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Doing Business Economy Profile 2012: Ghana

2012, World Bank, International Finance Corporation

Doing Business sheds light on how easy or difficult it is for a local entrepreneur to open and run a small to medium-size business when complying with relevant regulations. It measures and tracks changes in regulations affecting 10 areas in the life cycle of a business: starting a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing contracts and resolving insolvency. In a series of annual reports Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 183 economies, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, over time. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Ghana. To allow useful comparison, it also provides data for other selected economies (comparator economies) for each indicator. The data in this report are current as of June 1, 2011 (except for the paying taxes indicators, which cover the period January- December 2010). The data not only highlight the extent of obstacles to doing business; they also help identify the source of those obstacles, supporting policy makers in designing regulatory reform.

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Paying Taxes 2011: The Global Picture

2011, World Bank, International Finance Corporation, PwC

Taxes are the price you pay for civilization. Taxes provide government revenues, and those who pay them have a stake in the system and in how government spends its money. Taxes are lifeblood of a stable and prosperous society. In the wake of the global economic downturn levying tax in even more difficult. With large structural deficits in the big developed economies, fiscal policy has never been under so much public scrutiny. While there is a clear expectation that economies will need to raise taxes as well as making spending cuts, they will need to remain cautious in how they raise taxes to ensure that recovery is not stifled. For developing economies, with cuts in aid budgets, tax revenues may prove to be a more sustainable source of financing. But challenges remain in terms of combating capital flight. Reducing the size of the informal economy and helping tax authorities to monitor compliance and collect taxes.