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  • Publication
    Guinea-Bissau - Human Capital Review
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-05) World Bank
    This report presents the findings of a study to analyze Guinea-Bissau’s HCI indicators and its human capital policies across three sectors— health, education, and social protection. The report highlights a deep analysis of sociodemographic variables such as age, sex, income, and geographical disparities, based on the available data. It identifies critical gaps and constraints in the development of human capital and provides policy recommendations for improving human capital outcomes; these will inform upcoming World Bank operations in the country’s social sector.
  • Publication
    Assessment of Guinea-Bissau’s Pandemic Prevention, Preparedness, and Response Capacity
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-03) World Bank
    This report represents a comprehensive assessment of Guinea-Bissau’s PPR capacity conducted by the World Bank. The report details key gaps and findings about Guinea-Bissau’s health system and sets out priority recommendations to strengthen its PPR capacity and health system resilience. Key findings are grouped into five areas identified as most critical and in urgent need of attention to prepare for future threats.
  • Publication
    Collapse and Recovery: How the COVID-19 Pandemic Eroded Human Capital and What to Do about It
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023) Schady, Norbert; Holla, Alaka; Sabarwal, Shwetlena; Silva, Joana; Yi Chang, Andres
    Worldwide, the COVID-19 pandemic has been an enormous shock to mortality, economies, and daily life. But what has received insufficient attention is the impact of the pandemic on the accumulation of human capital—the health, education, and skills—of young people. How large was the setback, and how far are we still from a recovery? Collapse and Recovery estimates the impacts of the pandemic on the human capital of young children, school-age children, and youth and discusses the urgent actions needed to reverse the damage. It shows that there was a collapse of human capital and that, unless that collapse is remedied, it is a time bomb for countries. Specifically, the report documents alarming declines in cognitive and social-emotional development among young children, which could translate into a 25 percent reduction in their earnings as adults. It finds that 1 billion children in low- and middle-income countries missed at least one year of in-person schooling. And despite enormous efforts in remote learning, children did not learn during the unprecedentedly long school closures, which could reduce future lifetime earnings around the world by US$21 trillion. The report quantifies the dramatic drops in employment and skills among youth that resulted from the pandemic as well as the substantial increase in the number of youth neither employed nor enrolled in education or training. In all of these age groups, the impacts of the pandemic were consistently worse for children from poorer backgrounds. These losses call for immediate action. The good news is that evidence-based policies can recover these losses. Collapse and Recovery reviews governments’ responses to the pandemic, assessing why there was a collapse in human capital accumulation, what was missing in the policy architecture to protect human capital during the crisis, and how governments can better prepare to withstand future shocks. It offers concrete policy recommendations to recover losses in human capital—programs that will end up paying for themselves in the long term. To better prepare for future shocks such as climate change and wars, the report emphasizes the need for solutions that bring health, education, and social protection programs together in an integrated human development system. If countries fail to act, the losses in human capital documented in this report will become permanent and last for multiple generations. The time to act is now.
  • Publication
    Improving Effective Coverage in Health: Do Financial Incentives Work?
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022-05-11) de Walque, Damien; Kandpal, Eeshani; Wagstaff, Adam; Friedman, Jed; Neelsen, Sven; Piatti-Fünfkirchen, Moritz; Sautmann, Anja; Shapira, Gil; Van de Poel, Ellen
    In many low- and middle-income countries, health coverage has improved dramatically in the last two decades, but health outcomes have not. As such, effective coverage -- a measure of service delivery that meets a minimum standard of quality -- remains unacceptably low. This Policy Research Report examines one specific policy approach to improving effective coverage: financial incentives in the form of performance-based financing (PBF) or financial incentives to health workers on the front lines. The report draws on a rich set of rigorous studies and new analysis. When compared to business-as-usual, in low-income settings with centralized health systems PBF can result in substantial gains in effective coverage. However, the relative benefits of PBF are less clear when it is compared to two alternative approaches, decentralized facility financing which provides operating budget to frontline health services with facility autonomy on allocation, and demand-side financial support for health services (i.e., conditional cash transfers and vouchers). While PBF often results in improvements on the margins, closing the substantial gaps in effective health coverage is not yet within reach for many countries. Nonetheless, there are important lessons learned and experiences from the roll-out of PBF over the last decade which can guide health policies into the future.
  • Publication
    Enrollment and Eligibility Process of Brazil’s Auxílio Emergencial: Data Processing and Use of Administrative Registries
    (Washington, DC, 2021-01) World Bank
    In order to support the systematization of institutional learning processes provided by the implementation of Auxílio Emergencial in Brazil and disseminate the best practices derived from the Brazilian experience to social policy operators and administrators in other developing countries, the World Bank headed up a study on the social protection response to the Covid-19 pandemic in Brazil. Financed by the Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office (FCDO), which is linked to the Foreign Secretary of the Government of the United Kingdom, this study was conducted at the request and with the cooperation of the Brazilian Government. This project encompasses the preparation of a main Report covering the stages of the Auxílio Emergencial, together with four Technical Notes exploring specific implementation aspects in greater depth. One of them addresses registration and eligibility verification strategies, which form the subject of this text.
  • Publication
    Protecting People and Economies: Integrated Policy Responses to COVID-19
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020-05) World Bank
    The COVID-19 pandemic has unleashed a global health emergency and an unprecedented economic crisis of historic magnitude. Governments facing this threat are in uncharted territory, but three policy priorities addressed in this note are clear. Disease containment is a first-order concern to combat the pandemic, and measures such as testing and tracing, coupled with isolating and treating the infected can bring first-order gains. The economic crisis requires a parallel and simultaneous effort to save jobs, protect income, and ensure access to services for vulnerable populations. As governments act to slow the pandemic and protect lives and livelihoods now, they will need to maintain macro stability, continue to build trust, and communicate clearly to avoid deeper downturns and social unrest. Looking forward, this crisis can be an opportunity to rethink policy to build back with stronger systems for people and economies.
  • Publication
    Impact Evaluation in Practice, Second Edition
    (Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank and World Bank, 2016-09-13) Gertler, Paul J.; Martinez, Sebastian; Premand, Patrick; Rawlings, Laura B.; Vermeersch, Christel M. J.
    The second edition of the Impact Evaluation in Practice handbook is a comprehensive and accessible introduction to impact evaluation for policy makers and development practitioners. First published in 2011, it has been used widely across the development and academic communities. The book incorporates real-world examples to present practical guidelines for designing and implementing impact evaluations. Readers will gain an understanding of impact evaluations and the best ways to use them to design evidence-based policies and programs. The updated version covers the newest techniques for evaluating programs and includes state-of-the-art implementation advice, as well as an expanded set of examples and case studies that draw on recent development challenges. It also includes new material on research ethics and partnerships to conduct impact evaluation. The handbook is divided into four sections: Part One discusses what to evaluate and why; Part Two presents the main impact evaluation methods; Part Three addresses how to manage impact evaluations; Part Four reviews impact evaluation sampling and data collection. Case studies illustrate different applications of impact evaluations. The book links to complementary instructional material available online, including an applied case as well as questions and answers. The updated second edition will be a valuable resource for the international development community, universities, and policy makers looking to build better evidence around what works in development.
  • Publication
    UHC in Africa: A Framework for Action
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-08) World Bank
    Many countries in Africa still contend with high levels of child and maternal mortality, malnutrition is far too common, and most health systems are not able to deal effectively with epidemics and the growing burden of chronic diseases. These challenges call for renewed commitments and accelerated progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC). Besides the moral argument that it is not acceptable that some members of society should face death, disability, ill health or impoverishment for reasons that could be addressed at limited cost, UHC is a good investment. Prevention of malnutrition and ill health is likely to have enormous benefits in terms of longer and more productive lives, higher earnings, and averted care costs. Effectively meeting demand for family planning will accelerate the fertility transition, which in turn will result in higher rates of economic growth and more rapid poverty reduction. And strong health and disease surveillance systems halt epidemics that take lives and disrupt economies.
  • Publication
    Toward Universal Health Coverage and Equity in Latin America and the Caribbean: Evidence from Selected Countries
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2015-06-11) Dmytraczenko, Tania; Almeida, Gisele; Dmytraczenko, Tania; Almeida, Gisele
    This volume reviews progress in reducing inequalities in health outcomes, service utilization, and financial protection, and assesses the common trends emerging from these reforms.