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  • Publication
    The Brazil of the Future: Towards Productivity, Inclusion, and Sustainability
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-11-13) World Bank Group
    In 2022, Brazil celebrated its 200th anniversary. What will Brazil celebrate at its 220th anniversary, in 2042? Following the recent elections there is a window of opportunity for reforms that will shape Brazil’s development over the next decades. “The Brazil of the Future: Towards Productivity, Inclusion, and Sustainability” takes a long-term perspective on Brazil’s development, exploring how prudent actions today can generate opportunities for a more prosperous, inclusive, and sustainable society over the next 20 years. The report aims to stimulate public debate about a virtuous cycle for 2042, illustrated by four alternative future scenarios. With the right reforms Brazil can become an economic powerhouse that offers opportunities for all. A more inclusive social contract can facilitate critical reforms.
  • Publication
    Adaptation of the Calculator of Social and Environmental Impacts from Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Amazon: Application in Frontier Regions between Brazil, Colombia and Peru
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-11-09) World Bank
    Over the past decade, illegal gold extraction has increased significantly in the Amazon region, partly due to the high international prices of this mineral, the less stringent attitude of some countries in relation to the environment and the pursuit of immediate economic opportunities. Furthermore, this illicit activity is closely intertwined with other illegal practices, such as drug trafficking, human trafficking, and the trafficking of endangered species. This has repercussions not just for the region's ecological wealth, but also for the physical well-being of those safeguarding their lands and the health of communities living in proximity to the extraction zones due to the contamination of their rivers and, consequently, their primary sources of food, such as fish. Despite the international effort to recognize the socio-environmental repercussions of this activity, there are still gaps on this issue, mainly due to the economic losses that this activity represents.
  • Publication
    Brazil Country Climate and Development Report
    (World Bank Group, Washington DC, 2023-05-04) World Bank Group
    Brazil is highly exposed to climate change risks. The impacts of global climate change risks and local practices on the Amazon and Cerrado biomes are of particular concern, as they provide vital ecosystem services to Brazil, the South American region, and the world. The Brazil Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) examines the implications of climate change and climate action for Brazil's development objectives and priorities. It identifies opportunities for Brazil to achieve both its development goals and its climate commitments. It lays out a combination of sectoral and economy-wide policy reforms, as well as targeted investments in near- and medium-term mitigation and adaptation measures to achieve more rapid and inclusive development with lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The idea is to maximize synergies between climate and development objectives, while addressing trade-offs among policy objectives and key transition challenges.
  • Publication
    Opportunities for All: Brazil Policy Notes 2022
    (Washington, DC, 2022-12) World Bank
    This package of Public Policy Notes is directed to Brazilian policy makers and society to present the World Bank Group’s overview of key challenges facing the country at this juncture, and possible ways forward to address them. We present an agenda prioritized around four issues of core relevance to Brazil’s recovery and its future resilience. First is the goal of financing development sustainably given the immediate challenge of situating the country’s enormous growth, inclusion and climate action needs within a credible macroeconomic framework and efficient and effective fiscal policies. The second theme addressed in this note is building opportunities through productivity-led growth. With the growing reliance of Brazilians on social assistance policies, it is critical to keep sight of growth and jobs as the most important vehicles for the dignity and upward mobility of the poor. Third is increasing the capabilities and economic inclusion of the poor so that they are better able to capture the opportunities that come with growth. Thefourth theme we address in this note is meeting Brazil’s potential as a as a leader in green and climate friendly development. This document is accompanied by a package of six policy presentations and an underlying set of more detailed policy reports that can be accesses here: https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/brazil.
  • Publication
    Nature-Related Financial Risks in Brazil
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-08) Calice, Pietro; Diaz Kalan, Federico; Miguel, Faruk
    Biodiversity loss and associated economic costs are increasingly recognized as a source of financial risks. This paper explores how and to what extent Brazilian banks are exposed to the loss of biodiversity through their lending to non-financial corporates. The results suggest that such exposures are material. Forty-six percent of Brazilian banks’ non-financial corporate loan portfolio is concentrated in sectors highly or very highly dependent on one or more ecosystem services. Output losses associated with the collapse in ecosystem services could translate into a cumulative long-term increase in corporate nonperforming loans of 9 percentage points. Moreover, 15 percent of Brazilian banks’ corporate loan portfolio is to firms potentially operating in protected areas, which could increase to 25 percent should conservation gaps close, and 38 percent should all priority areas become protected. Finally, 7 percent of corporate loans are to firms for which environmental controversies have been recorded. While preliminary, the results have important policy implications for both Brazilian banks and Banco Central do Brasil.
  • Publication
    Projeto de Fortalecimento das Instituicoes e Infraestrutura do Mercado de Carbono no Brasil : Strengthening of the Brazilian Carbon Market's Institutions and Infrastructure [Bilingual]
    (Washington, DC, 2010-11) World Bank
    The worldwide carbon market is a reality. It has contributed to the implementation of projects that aim to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in many different sectors and it has turned GHGs, represented by carbon, into economic assets that are no longer mere environmental liabilities. In this context, Brazil currently ranks third in the world in terms of the number of projects on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Brazil pioneered the development of the first large scale methodology and registration for the first project in the history of the CDM. Despite Brazil's significant qualitative and quantitative participation in such projects, there is still great potential for the development of other types of CDM project activities. Given the new methodologies for CDM projects approved over the last few years and the programmatic CDM, which intends to reduce bureaucracy and accelerate the registration process for closely related projects, there exists an even greater potential for CDM projects in several sectors in Brazil. The main objective of this study was to identify the existing technical potential for low carbon projects as described above as well as to stimulate the implementation of low carbon projects in Brazil, thus contributing towards reducing and avoiding Brazil's current and projected emissions and inserting Brazil into the new low carbon economy. Generally speaking, the study focused on sectors where there is still a potential for the application of conventional techniques or technologies to reduce or avoid GHG emissions.
  • Publication
    Environmental Licensing for Hydroelectric Projects in Brazil : A Contribution to the Debate
    (Washington, DC, 2008-03-28) World Bank
    This study points out that hydroelectric plants will continue to play a prominent role in the Brazilian electric matrix. A significant portion of the potential hydroelectric plants of the country is located in the Amazon, environmentally sensitive region. The licensing of hydroelectric projects in Brazil is considered a major obstacle for the expanding the capacity of generating electricity. The non-expansion, in turn, represents a serious threat to economic growth. This study, designed as a contribution to the debate in progress about the subject, examines the legal and institutional milestones of the environmental licensing of hydroelectric ventures, including studies of selected cases, an assessment of transaction costs of the processes and a comparison with international practices. Two conclusions emerge from this study. The first is that the costs of dealing with environmental issues and social development of enterprises hydroelectric in Brazil represent 12 percent of the total cost of the work. And the second is that costs of taxes, in general, the contractual and regulatory uncertainty, excluding the licensing environmental, represent about 7.5 percent of the total cost. In other words, the conclusion is clear: the environmental and social costs can be easily integrated. This study does not suggest radical changes to the system of environmental licensing. Any reform of the Brazilian environmental licensing can not be dealt with based on a single, simple solution. Rather, the system is complex and multifaceted, with a long legal and institutional history. A process of broad national discussion on the energy issue and its implications for environmental goods of the country is essential and is already in progress.