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PublicationThe Brazil of the Future: Towards Productivity, Inclusion, and Sustainability(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-11-13) World Bank GroupIn 2022, Brazil celebrated its 200th anniversary. What will Brazil celebrate at its 220th anniversary, in 2042? Following the recent elections there is a window of opportunity for reforms that will shape Brazil’s development over the next decades. “The Brazil of the Future: Towards Productivity, Inclusion, and Sustainability” takes a long-term perspective on Brazil’s development, exploring how prudent actions today can generate opportunities for a more prosperous, inclusive, and sustainable society over the next 20 years. The report aims to stimulate public debate about a virtuous cycle for 2042, illustrated by four alternative future scenarios. With the right reforms Brazil can become an economic powerhouse that offers opportunities for all. A more inclusive social contract can facilitate critical reforms. PublicationAngola Country Climate and Development Report(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank GroupClimate change is already affecting people’s lives and livelihoods in Angola, as well as the Angolan economy. The country is experiencing increasingly severe and frequent climate hazards, including the South’s worst prolonged droughts in decades. Climate change impacts also come with a heavy price tag: climate-related disasters (floods, storms, droughts) cost Angola nearly US1.2 billion dollars between 2005 and 2017, and on average droughts alone affect about a million Angolans every year. Impacts of climate variability on Angola’s water resources are expected to be particularly severe and will affect food and energy production, as well as hydropower, on which Angola relies for most of its electricity. The future does not look much brighter: climate models predict a rise in temperatures, with most of Angola becoming 1–1.5 degree Celsius warmer in 2020-2040 relative to the 1981–2010 period, with a 1.4-degree Celsius increase in the annual average temperature already recorded. The imperative to adapt and transition to a proactive model for climate risk management is urgent. Against this backdrop, and the equally urgent priority to diversify away from a highly oil-based economy, the Angola Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) provides options for the country to adapt to a fast-warming and decarbonizing world and adopt measures for more diversified and climate-resilient development that will underpin sustainable and inclusive growth. Angola has significant renewable capital, including agricultural land, forests, water resources, and, above all, its people, who can facilitate this process. But climate change also threatens these renewable assets, and necessary investments in climate resilience will be critical to realize their potential. This report identifies five pathways to achieve a vision of a future Angolan economy that is both diversified and climate-resilient, with opportunities for all. Tailored to the national context, these approaches were identified in dialogue with the Government of Angola and build on national development priorities. Angola is rich in natural capital, not only oil, gas, and diamonds, but also abundant water resources, renewable energy potential, and fertile arable land. Therefore, to shift away from an economy driven by oil and gas extraction and toward a sustainable and diversified economy based on renewable natural capital, this CCDR recommends investing in and building the resilience of key sectors, notably 1) water resources, 2) agriculture and fisheries, and 3) renewable energy. Delivering the vision of a climate-resilient and diversified economy also entails 4) enabling green and resilient cities with economic opportunities for all Angolans; and leveraging Angola’s young population by 5) boosting human capital, through expanded, climate-resilient access to basic services and by fostering a culture of climate preparedness. PublicationA Roadmap for Climate Action in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2021-2025(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2022) World Bank GroupIn Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) the rapidly changing climate is increasing the frequency and intensity of extreme weather‑related events. The year 2020 saw the most catastrophic fire season over the Pantanal region and a record number of storms during the Atlantic cyclone season. Eta and Iota, two category 4 hurricanes, affected more than 8 million people in Central America, causing tens of billions of dollars in damage. In Honduras, annual average losses due to climate‑related shocks are estimated at 2.3 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). In rankings of the impacts of extreme weather events from 2000 to 2019, five Caribbean nations figure among the top 20 globally in terms of fatalities per capita, while in terms of economic losses as a share of GDP eight of the top 20 countries are in the Caribbean. Extreme precipitation events, which result in floods and landslides, are projected to intensify in magnitude and frequency due to climate change, with a 1.5°C increase in mean global temperature projected to result in an increase of up to 200 percent in the population affected by floods in Colombia, Brazil, and Argentina; 300 percent in Ecuador; and 400 percent in Peru. Climate shocks reduce the income of the poorest 40 percent by more than double the average of the LAC population and could push an estimated 2.4–5.8 million people in the region into extreme poverty by 2030. PublicationWorld Bank Group Forest Action Plan FY16–20(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-04-08) World Bank GroupThe World Bank Group (WBG) Forest Action Plan FY16-20 aims to integrate the sustainable management of forests more fully into development decisions and define priorities for WBG interventions in the next five years. It focuses on two areas of engagement: i) Sustainable Forestry, where the WBG aims to have investments contributing to sustainable management of forests and value chains and (ii) Forest-Smart Interventions, where WBG aims to have interventions in other sectors not come at the expense of forest capital. These two focus areas build on three cross-cutting themes: climate change and resilience, rights and participation; and institutions and governance.