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  • Publication
    Scenarios for Offshore Wind Development in Brazil
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-07-19) World Bank
    Brazil possesses an abundance of natural resources that contribute to meeting its energy demand. Thanks to a traditional base of hydroelectric power and the more recent development of onshore wind and solar, Brazil enjoys one of the world’s cleanest and most cost-competitive generation mixes. Brazil also happens to have one of the world’s best offshore wind resources. This offshore wind resource is vigorous, consistent, geographically diverse, and located close to demand centers; all factors that suggest that offshore wind could figure prominently in the country’s long-term energy mix. At the same time, the first offshore wind projects will have a higher cost of generation than onshore projects and require a significant ramp-up in national capacities if Brazil is to compete with established markets in Europe or even new markets in the Americas. This leads to an obvious question: Why would Brazil seek to develop offshore wind at scale when it already has so many options from which to choose The answer will ultimately be provided by policymakers and stakeholders seeking to chart a long-term path to Brazil’s energy needs while also meeting objectives around climate mitigation, energy security, electricity affordability, and economic development. This report is intended to inform that decision making by outlining the challenges and opportunities associated with different offshore wind development pathways from a technical, commercial, economic, environmental, and social perspective.
  • Publication
    Research for Innovation in Health Systems - Improving the Management of Health Care Services for Patients with Multiple Chronic Conditions in Three Latin American Countries: Brazil, Colombia and Uruguay - Key Messages
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-24) World Bank
    The accelerated aging of the Brazilian population, alongside the gradual increase in the concomitant occurrence of multiple chronic diseases in the same individual, brings important challenges to the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). n Colombia, during 2012 - 2016, multimorbidity had a prevalence of 19.5 percent for all ages, according to data from the study carried out by the World Bank and the Ministry of Health and Social Protection. The investigation also showed an increase in the use and cost of health services associated with older age and the complexity of multimorbidity, in an aging population that shifts its epidemiological profile towards chronic diseases. The expenditure with patients with multimorbidity in Uruguay is high. Persons with five or more of diseases (Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure, Diabetes, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Degenerative Neurological Disease) represent 8.44 percent of the total patient population, but their care accounts for 42.07 percent of the total expenditure, and 50.48 percent of the expenditure on medications.
  • Publication
    The Economic Opportunity for Financial Inclusion of Forcibly Displaced People (FDP) by the Financial Sector in Brazil
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-21) International Finance Corporation (IFC)
    This study was commissioned by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) to identify opportunities that foster the financial inclusion of the community of Forcibly Displaced People (FDP) in Brazil. The study provides concrete business opportunities for the provision of sustainable financial services to refugees and migrants in the country. It also provides recommendations for the financial sector and other stakeholders who aim to serve the FDP community locally. For the study, the term FDP includes both refugees and migrants, from different nationalities, living in Brazil for more than six months. The following analysis and insights are based on a comprehensive market assessment on the current demand and supply of financial and non-financial services for FDP in Brazil. An online survey resulted from 1,070 respondents captured data on the socioeconomic profiles of the FDP population in Brazil, as well as their needs for financial and non-financial services. On the demand side, 20 individual in-depth interviews and 8 focus groups with refugees and migrants mainly from Venezuela, Bolivia, and Haiti were conducted. On the supply side, desk research was conducted, and interviews were held with representatives from 16 Brazilian Financial Service Providers (FSPs), including: large private banks, mid-sized private financial institutions, fintech and digital banks, Microfinance Institutions (MFIs), public financial institutions, and state development agencies. Additional interviews were conducted with international and local organizations that support the FDP population in Brazil. This study provides the necessary inputs to elaborate or improve institutional strategies that recognize the economic opportunity related to the financial inclusion of the FDP community in Brazil. Realistic business cases illustrate the additional market potential and strategic opportunities for FSPs.
  • Publication
    Multimorbidity: A Panorama of Brazil
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-20) World Bank
    The demographic transition accompanied by the epidemiological transition, evidenced by the change in the health profile of the Brazilian population, brings important challenges to the Unified Health System. The accelerated aging of the population further accentuates the effects of the triple burden of diseases, placing society as a all in the face of this new reality. Important changes are underway, both economic and social. The Coronavirus pandemic has made this context even more complex, increasing inequalities, including in health, further impacting health services, which were excessively demanded in these three years, initially due to the global health challenge that found Brazil one of its most fertile grounds, and, subsequently, by the consequences left by the inevitable prioritization of the emerging disease, which led services to leave aside much of the care for chronic patients. Considering the gradual increase in the concomitant occurrence of multiple chronic diseases affecting the same individual, whether over the last few decades or throughout the citizen’s life, the current situation of multimorbidity deserves, at the very least, the attention of health authorities. This report characterizes multimorbidity in the country, presenting two examples of chronic disease management, one from the public sector and the other from the private sector.
  • Publication
    The Nerds, the Cool and the Central: Peer Education and Teen Pregnancy in Brazil
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-06-11) World Bank
    Teenage pregnancy rates in Brazil are among the highest in Latin America. The current rate of 68.4 per 1,000 adolescents lies well above the world average of 46 per 1,000 and is higher than the Latin American average of 65.5 per 1,000
  • Publication
    The Brazilian Pension System Under an Equity Lens: Technical Note
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2024-05-07) Zviniene, Asta; Raquel, Tsukada
    The objective of this note is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the Brazilian pension system through an equity lens. This focus is important, because fairness and equity of the pension system are relevant even beyond their intrinsic societal value: they are also instrumental for economic growth, as it impacts the incentives to participate in the labor market, as well as the productivity of current and future workers. Furthermore, political considerations also require that fairness and equity are taken into account in any future pension reform discussions. Section 2 provides general overview of the pension system and briefly explains the recent pension reforms in Brazil, while Section 3 offers a framework for addressing equity issues in the pension context. It explores how Brazilian pension system provides different levels of protection to distinct groups, creating a mismatch between contributions paid and benefits received, not always in a progressive manner. Section 4 concludes with a summary of the findings and a set of policy recommendations.
  • Publication
    The Brazil of the Future: Towards Productivity, Inclusion, and Sustainability
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-11-13) World Bank Group
    In 2022, Brazil celebrated its 200th anniversary. What will Brazil celebrate at its 220th anniversary, in 2042? Following the recent elections there is a window of opportunity for reforms that will shape Brazil’s development over the next decades. “The Brazil of the Future: Towards Productivity, Inclusion, and Sustainability” takes a long-term perspective on Brazil’s development, exploring how prudent actions today can generate opportunities for a more prosperous, inclusive, and sustainable society over the next 20 years. The report aims to stimulate public debate about a virtuous cycle for 2042, illustrated by four alternative future scenarios. With the right reforms Brazil can become an economic powerhouse that offers opportunities for all. A more inclusive social contract can facilitate critical reforms.
  • Publication
    Adaptation of the Calculator of Social and Environmental Impacts from Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Amazon: Application in Frontier Regions between Brazil, Colombia and Peru
    (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2023-11-09) World Bank
    Over the past decade, illegal gold extraction has increased significantly in the Amazon region, partly due to the high international prices of this mineral, the less stringent attitude of some countries in relation to the environment and the pursuit of immediate economic opportunities. Furthermore, this illicit activity is closely intertwined with other illegal practices, such as drug trafficking, human trafficking, and the trafficking of endangered species. This has repercussions not just for the region's ecological wealth, but also for the physical well-being of those safeguarding their lands and the health of communities living in proximity to the extraction zones due to the contamination of their rivers and, consequently, their primary sources of food, such as fish. Despite the international effort to recognize the socio-environmental repercussions of this activity, there are still gaps on this issue, mainly due to the economic losses that this activity represents.
  • Publication
    Distributional Impacts of Brazil’s Tax Reform: scenarios regarding Cesta Básica exemption
    (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-10-31) Vale, Ricardo; Lara Ibarra, Gabriel; Fleury, Eduardo; Trzcinski, Kajetan
    A consumption tax reform in Brazil has been recently approved by the House of Representatives, providing a full tax exemption for the yet undefined ‘National Basic Basket’ of goods (cesta basica nacional), alongside a cashback scheme that is yet to be determined. This note simulates the distributional impacts of different fiscally neutral scenarios of reduced rates and exemptions. The authors show that the exemption of taxes for food and personal care goods (such as those suggested by Law 10,925) would benefit the most vulnerable. Nonetheless, overall expenditures on certain items that are being considered for inclusion in the cesta are relatively concentrated on households in the top decile of the income distribution. Thus, a blanket exemption on Cesta Basica items may benefit the richest more in absolute terms. If the list of items in the exempted Cesta Basica is shortened and the equivalent resources of the potential forgone revenues are returned into a targeted cashback scheme, a far less regressive indirect tax system could be achieved.
  • Publication
    Brazil Systematic Country Diagnostic: Update
    (Washington, D.C., 2023-10-11) World Bank
    This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) update argues that development challenges identified in SCD1 remain relevant. Moreover, there is a renewed urgency to build the capacity of individuals to generate income and a reinforced need for timely action in a transition to a greener economy. The update builds on the evidence collected in a long series of recently published analytical reports to review the challenges identified in SCD1 and inform the definition of the update’s challenges. The first constraint is complemented by the definition of another challenge so that not only the need to have productive jobs is highlighted, but also the poverty‐reduction prerequisite of building the income‐generating capacity of all individuals (through human, natural, and financial capital) is explicitly stated. The third constraint is also expanded to underscore Brazil’s need to address increased exposure to climate change risks in a timely manner. The update identified four development challenges that must be overcome, which are linked to three desired high‐level outcomes (HLOs). These outcomes, reflecting transformative changes that are critical to achieving the twin goals, are defined as long‐term sustained improvements in the well‐being of the poorest and most vulnerable. The HLOs are: (i) increased access to high quality job opportunities; (ii) improved households’ accumulation and use of productive assets; and (iii) reduced vulnerability to climate shocks.