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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank GroupClimate change is already affecting people’s lives and livelihoods in Angola, as well as the Angolan economy. The country is experiencing increasingly severe and frequent climate hazards, including the South’s worst prolonged droughts in decades. Climate change impacts also come with a heavy price tag: climate-related disasters (floods, storms, droughts) cost Angola nearly US1.2 billion dollars between 2005 and 2017, and on average droughts alone affect about a million Angolans every year. Impacts of climate variability on Angola’s water resources are expected to be particularly severe and will affect food and energy production, as well as hydropower, on which Angola relies for most of its electricity. The future does not look much brighter: climate models predict a rise in temperatures, with most of Angola becoming 1–1.5 degree Celsius warmer in 2020-2040 relative to the 1981–2010 period, with a 1.4-degree Celsius increase in the annual average temperature already recorded. The imperative to adapt and transition to a proactive model for climate risk management is urgent. Against this backdrop, and the equally urgent priority to diversify away from a highly oil-based economy, the Angola Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) provides options for the country to adapt to a fast-warming and decarbonizing world and adopt measures for more diversified and climate-resilient development that will underpin sustainable and inclusive growth. Angola has significant renewable capital, including agricultural land, forests, water resources, and, above all, its people, who can facilitate this process. But climate change also threatens these renewable assets, and necessary investments in climate resilience will be critical to realize their potential. This report identifies five pathways to achieve a vision of a future Angolan economy that is both diversified and climate-resilient, with opportunities for all. Tailored to the national context, these approaches were identified in dialogue with the Government of Angola and build on national development priorities. Angola is rich in natural capital, not only oil, gas, and diamonds, but also abundant water resources, renewable energy potential, and fertile arable land. Therefore, to shift away from an economy driven by oil and gas extraction and toward a sustainable and diversified economy based on renewable natural capital, this CCDR recommends investing in and building the resilience of key sectors, notably 1) water resources, 2) agriculture and fisheries, and 3) renewable energy. Delivering the vision of a climate-resilient and diversified economy also entails 4) enabling green and resilient cities with economic opportunities for all Angolans; and leveraging Angola’s young population by 5) boosting human capital, through expanded, climate-resilient access to basic services and by fostering a culture of climate preparedness.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2021-05-10) Lombana Cordoba, Camilo ; Andres, Luis A. ; Da Costa, Lucrecio A.M. ; Fenwick, CrystalAngola’s human development potential is constrained by the state of its water supply, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) sector. The Angola WASH sector diagnostic identifies key service-delivery problems in the WASH sector and their enabling environment through an institutional assessment and political economy analysis that takes into account the cross-sectoral links underpinning human development. Specifically, the diagnostic first explores inequalities in access to WASH services and their relationship to childhood health in Angola, using data from the most recent demographic health survey (DHS, 2015-16) and the joint monitoring program (JMP) of the United Nations Children’s Fund and World Health Organization. Next, the diagnostic identifies key institutional constraints and bottlenecks through a comprehensive governance and public expenditure review of Angola’s WASH sector. Finally, the report provides guidance on how to improve the effectiveness of the WASH sector in support of broader policy goals to achieve sustainability and meet the targets of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). The diagnostic answers the following questions, each of which probes the links between access to safe WASH services and human development and highlights opportunities to improve policy, investments, and practice: (1) what is the current level and quality of access to WASH services in Angola, and how does access vary temporally and spatially?; (2) what are the links and synergies between WASH and other sectors critical to human development in Angola?; (3) what constrains WASH service delivery; and (4) what solutions will have the greatest effect on overall human development?