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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2020) Das, Maitreyi Bordia ; Espinoza, Sabina AnneAfrica has garnered global attention for its many achievements and its dynamism, and at the same time, it has taken the spotlight for its substantial challenges. As in other parts of the world, positive developments have been uneven in Africa. This report places the notion of social inclusion in an analysis of Africa’s achievements and challenges. Its interdisciplinary approach uses evidence to bring empirical weight to issues that are often debated through advocacy and contestation. It also contributes to the priority areas of a new regional strategy for the Africa region of the World Bank by focusing on women’s empowerment, digital technology, fragility, and climate change, among others. The report asks, in the wake of the advances Africa has made over the years, who is excluded, from what, how, and why. It then highlights what has been attempted in the quest of African countries for social inclusion. One of the main contributions of this report is that while grounded in the experience of African countries, it shows that Africa’s challenges in social inclusion are not unique or exceptional. It highlights examples of the remarkable innovations that abound in Africa and of the policy and programmatic movement towards social inclusion. It surmises that social inclusion must be based on a clear social contract that recognizes both the costs and benefits of policies and interventions towards social inclusion.
Republic of Cabo Verde: Adjusting the Development Model to Revive Growth and Strengthen Social Inclusion(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018) World Bank GroupCabo Verde’s economic achievements over the last thirty years have been spectacular and are unprecedented on the African continent. These achievements are remarkable given the unique challenges the country faces due to its small size, lack of scale for production of goods and delivery of economic and social services, remoteness, geographical dispersion, environmental fragility, and high exposure to shocks. This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) presents an assessment of the main opportunities and constraints for achieving the World Bank’s twin goals in Cabo Verde. It assesses the pathways for reducing extreme poverty and raising the welfare of the poorest forty percent of the population in a sustainable manner, and identifies the main constraints for operationalizing these. The SCD is based on a review of existing documents, analysis of available data, and in-country discussions and expert interviews that took place during 2016 and 2017. The SCD focuses on the country’s development potential and challenges to meeting the objectives of poverty reduction and shared posterity. It lays the ground for the program of collaboration between Cabo Verde and the World Bank Group, namely the 2018–2021 country partnership framework.