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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2022) World Bank GroupClimate change is already affecting people’s lives and livelihoods in Angola, as well as the Angolan economy. The country is experiencing increasingly severe and frequent climate hazards, including the South’s worst prolonged droughts in decades. Climate change impacts also come with a heavy price tag: climate-related disasters (floods, storms, droughts) cost Angola nearly US1.2 billion dollars between 2005 and 2017, and on average droughts alone affect about a million Angolans every year. Impacts of climate variability on Angola’s water resources are expected to be particularly severe and will affect food and energy production, as well as hydropower, on which Angola relies for most of its electricity. The future does not look much brighter: climate models predict a rise in temperatures, with most of Angola becoming 1–1.5 degree Celsius warmer in 2020-2040 relative to the 1981–2010 period, with a 1.4-degree Celsius increase in the annual average temperature already recorded. The imperative to adapt and transition to a proactive model for climate risk management is urgent. Against this backdrop, and the equally urgent priority to diversify away from a highly oil-based economy, the Angola Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR) provides options for the country to adapt to a fast-warming and decarbonizing world and adopt measures for more diversified and climate-resilient development that will underpin sustainable and inclusive growth. Angola has significant renewable capital, including agricultural land, forests, water resources, and, above all, its people, who can facilitate this process. But climate change also threatens these renewable assets, and necessary investments in climate resilience will be critical to realize their potential. This report identifies five pathways to achieve a vision of a future Angolan economy that is both diversified and climate-resilient, with opportunities for all. Tailored to the national context, these approaches were identified in dialogue with the Government of Angola and build on national development priorities. Angola is rich in natural capital, not only oil, gas, and diamonds, but also abundant water resources, renewable energy potential, and fertile arable land. Therefore, to shift away from an economy driven by oil and gas extraction and toward a sustainable and diversified economy based on renewable natural capital, this CCDR recommends investing in and building the resilience of key sectors, notably 1) water resources, 2) agriculture and fisheries, and 3) renewable energy. Delivering the vision of a climate-resilient and diversified economy also entails 4) enabling green and resilient cities with economic opportunities for all Angolans; and leveraging Angola’s young population by 5) boosting human capital, through expanded, climate-resilient access to basic services and by fostering a culture of climate preparedness.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-03-19) Rigaud, Kanta Kumari ; de Sherbinin, Alex ; Jones, Bryan ; Bergmann, Jonas ; Clement, Viviane ; Ober, Kayly ; Schewe, Jacob ; Adamo, Susana ; McCusker, Brent ; Heuser, Silke ; Midgley, AmeliaThis report, which focuses on three regions—Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Latin America that together represent 55 percent of the developing world’s population—finds that climate change will push tens of millions of people to migrate within their countries by 2050. It projects that without concrete climate and development action, just over 143 million people—or around 2.8 percent of the population of these three regions—could be forced to move within their own countries to escape the slow-onset impacts of climate change. They will migrate from less viable areas with lower water availability and crop productivity and from areas affected by rising sea level and storm surges. The poorest and most climate vulnerable areas will be hardest hit. These trends, alongside the emergence of “hotspots” of climate in- and out-migration, will have major implications for climate-sensitive sectors and for the adequacy of infrastructure and social support systems. The report finds that internal climate migration will likely rise through 2050 and then accelerate unless there are significant cuts in greenhouse gas emissions and robust development action.
Republic of Cabo Verde: Adjusting the Development Model to Revive Growth and Strengthen Social Inclusion(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018) World Bank GroupCabo Verde’s economic achievements over the last thirty years have been spectacular and are unprecedented on the African continent. These achievements are remarkable given the unique challenges the country faces due to its small size, lack of scale for production of goods and delivery of economic and social services, remoteness, geographical dispersion, environmental fragility, and high exposure to shocks. This Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) presents an assessment of the main opportunities and constraints for achieving the World Bank’s twin goals in Cabo Verde. It assesses the pathways for reducing extreme poverty and raising the welfare of the poorest forty percent of the population in a sustainable manner, and identifies the main constraints for operationalizing these. The SCD is based on a review of existing documents, analysis of available data, and in-country discussions and expert interviews that took place during 2016 and 2017. The SCD focuses on the country’s development potential and challenges to meeting the objectives of poverty reduction and shared posterity. It lays the ground for the program of collaboration between Cabo Verde and the World Bank Group, namely the 2018–2021 country partnership framework.