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Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2018-06-22) Dutz, Mark A.Brazil approaches its 2018 election with an economy that is gradually recovering from the deepest recession in its recent economic history. However, for many Brazilians, the recovery has not yet translated into new and better jobs, or rising incomes. This book explores the drivers of future employment and income growth. Its key finding: Brazil needs to dramatically improve its performance across all industries in terms of productivity if the country is to provide better jobs for its citizens and generate lasting gains in incomes growth for all. This is particularly important as Brazil is aging rapidly and the boost the country has enjoyed thanks to its young and growing labor force in the past decades will disappear in just a few years’ time. The book recommends a change in the relationship between the state and business, from rewarding privileged incumbents to fostering competition and innovation—together with supporting workers and firms to adjust to the demands of the market. The book is addressed to all scholars and students of Brazil’s economy, especially those interested in why the country’s economic performance has not kept up with earlier achievements since the reintroduction of democracy in the mid-1980s. Its conclusions are urgent and pertinent but also optimistic. With the right policy mix, Brazil could enter the third century of its independence in 2022 well on track to join the ranks of high income countries.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2013-06-13) Gragnolati, Michele ; Lindelow, Magnus ; Couttolenc, BernardIt has been more than 20 years since Brazil's 1988 Constitution formally established the Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude, SUS). Building on reforms that started in the 1980s, the SUS represented a significant break with the past, establishing health care as a fundamental right and duty of the state and initiating a process of fundamentally transforming Brazil's health system to achieve this goal. This report aims to answer two main questions. First is have the SUS reforms transformed the health system as envisaged 20 years ago? Second, have the reforms led to improvements with regard to access to services, financial protection, and health outcomes? In addressing these questions, the report revisits ground covered in previous assessments, but also brings to bear additional or more recent data and places Brazil's health system in an international context. The report shows that the health system reforms can be credited with significant achievements. The report points to some promising directions for health system reforms that will allow Brazil to continue building on the achievements made to date. Although it is possible to reach some broad conclusions, there are many gaps and caveats in the story. A secondary aim of the report is to consider how some of these gaps can be filled through improved monitoring of health system performance and future research. The introduction presents a short review of the history of the SUS, describes the core principles that underpinned the reform, and offers a brief description of the evaluation framework used in the report. Chapter two presents findings on the extent to which the SUS reforms have transformed the health system, focusing on delivery, financing, and governance. Chapter three asks whether the reforms have resulted in improved outcomes with regard to access to services, financial protection, quality, health outcomes, and efficiency. The concluding chapter presents the main findings of the study, discusses some policy directions for addressing the current shortcomings, and identifies areas for further research.
Publication(Washington, DC, 2008-03-28) World BankThis study points out that hydroelectric plants will continue to play a prominent role in the Brazilian electric matrix. A significant portion of the potential hydroelectric plants of the country is located in the Amazon, environmentally sensitive region. The licensing of hydroelectric projects in Brazil is considered a major obstacle for the expanding the capacity of generating electricity. The non-expansion, in turn, represents a serious threat to economic growth. This study, designed as a contribution to the debate in progress about the subject, examines the legal and institutional milestones of the environmental licensing of hydroelectric ventures, including studies of selected cases, an assessment of transaction costs of the processes and a comparison with international practices. Two conclusions emerge from this study. The first is that the costs of dealing with environmental issues and social development of enterprises hydroelectric in Brazil represent 12 percent of the total cost of the work. And the second is that costs of taxes, in general, the contractual and regulatory uncertainty, excluding the licensing environmental, represent about 7.5 percent of the total cost. In other words, the conclusion is clear: the environmental and social costs can be easily integrated. This study does not suggest radical changes to the system of environmental licensing. Any reform of the Brazilian environmental licensing can not be dealt with based on a single, simple solution. Rather, the system is complex and multifaceted, with a long legal and institutional history. A process of broad national discussion on the energy issue and its implications for environmental goods of the country is essential and is already in progress.