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    Projeto de Fortalecimento das Instituicoes e Infraestrutura do Mercado de Carbono no Brasil : Strengthening of the Brazilian Carbon Market's Institutions and Infrastructure [Bilingual]
    (Washington, DC, 2010-11) World Bank
    The worldwide carbon market is a reality. It has contributed to the implementation of projects that aim to reduce Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in many different sectors and it has turned GHGs, represented by carbon, into economic assets that are no longer mere environmental liabilities. In this context, Brazil currently ranks third in the world in terms of the number of projects on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Brazil pioneered the development of the first large scale methodology and registration for the first project in the history of the CDM. Despite Brazil's significant qualitative and quantitative participation in such projects, there is still great potential for the development of other types of CDM project activities. Given the new methodologies for CDM projects approved over the last few years and the programmatic CDM, which intends to reduce bureaucracy and accelerate the registration process for closely related projects, there exists an even greater potential for CDM projects in several sectors in Brazil. The main objective of this study was to identify the existing technical potential for low carbon projects as described above as well as to stimulate the implementation of low carbon projects in Brazil, thus contributing towards reducing and avoiding Brazil's current and projected emissions and inserting Brazil into the new low carbon economy. Generally speaking, the study focused on sectors where there is still a potential for the application of conventional techniques or technologies to reduce or avoid GHG emissions.
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    Environmental Licensing for Hydroelectric Projects in Brazil : A Contribution to the Debate
    (Washington, DC, 2008-03-28) World Bank
    This study points out that hydroelectric plants will continue to play a prominent role in the Brazilian electric matrix. A significant portion of the potential hydroelectric plants of the country is located in the Amazon, environmentally sensitive region. The licensing of hydroelectric projects in Brazil is considered a major obstacle for the expanding the capacity of generating electricity. The non-expansion, in turn, represents a serious threat to economic growth. This study, designed as a contribution to the debate in progress about the subject, examines the legal and institutional milestones of the environmental licensing of hydroelectric ventures, including studies of selected cases, an assessment of transaction costs of the processes and a comparison with international practices. Two conclusions emerge from this study. The first is that the costs of dealing with environmental issues and social development of enterprises hydroelectric in Brazil represent 12 percent of the total cost of the work. And the second is that costs of taxes, in general, the contractual and regulatory uncertainty, excluding the licensing environmental, represent about 7.5 percent of the total cost. In other words, the conclusion is clear: the environmental and social costs can be easily integrated. This study does not suggest radical changes to the system of environmental licensing. Any reform of the Brazilian environmental licensing can not be dealt with based on a single, simple solution. Rather, the system is complex and multifaceted, with a long legal and institutional history. A process of broad national discussion on the energy issue and its implications for environmental goods of the country is essential and is already in progress.