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Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2023-10-31) Vale, Ricardo ; Lara Ibarra, Gabriel ; Fleury, Eduardo ; Trzcinski, KajetanA consumption tax reform in Brazil has been recently approved by the House of Representatives, providing a full tax exemption for the yet undefined ‘National Basic Basket’ of goods (cesta basica nacional), alongside a cashback scheme that is yet to be determined. This note simulates the distributional impacts of different fiscally neutral scenarios of reduced rates and exemptions. The authors show that the exemption of taxes for food and personal care goods (such as those suggested by Law 10,925) would benefit the most vulnerable. Nonetheless, overall expenditures on certain items that are being considered for inclusion in the cesta are relatively concentrated on households in the top decile of the income distribution. Thus, a blanket exemption on Cesta Basica items may benefit the richest more in absolute terms. If the list of items in the exempted Cesta Basica is shortened and the equivalent resources of the potential forgone revenues are returned into a targeted cashback scheme, a far less regressive indirect tax system could be achieved.
Publication(Washington, D.C., 2023-10-11) World BankThis Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) update argues that development challenges identified in SCD1 remain relevant. Moreover, there is a renewed urgency to build the capacity of individuals to generate income and a reinforced need for timely action in a transition to a greener economy. The update builds on the evidence collected in a long series of recently published analytical reports to review the challenges identified in SCD1 and inform the definition of the update’s challenges. The first constraint is complemented by the definition of another challenge so that not only the need to have productive jobs is highlighted, but also the poverty‐reduction prerequisite of building the income‐generating capacity of all individuals (through human, natural, and financial capital) is explicitly stated. The third constraint is also expanded to underscore Brazil’s need to address increased exposure to climate change risks in a timely manner. The update identified four development challenges that must be overcome, which are linked to three desired high‐level outcomes (HLOs). These outcomes, reflecting transformative changes that are critical to achieving the twin goals, are defined as long‐term sustained improvements in the well‐being of the poorest and most vulnerable. The HLOs are: (i) increased access to high quality job opportunities; (ii) improved households’ accumulation and use of productive assets; and (iii) reduced vulnerability to climate shocks.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2018-08-28) Freire, German ; Diaz-Bonilla, Carolina ; Schwartz Orellana, Steven ; Soler Lopez, Jorge ; Carbonari, FlaviaAbout one in four Latin Americans self-identify as Afro-descendants today. They comprise a highly heterogeneous population and are unevenly distributed across the region, but share a common history of displacement and exclusion. Despite significant gains over the past decade, Afro-descendants still are overrepresented among the poor and are underrepresented in decision-making positions, both in the private and the public sector. The extent to which Latin America will be able to end extreme poverty and boost shared prosperity will therefore depend, to a very large degree, on the social inclusion of Afro-descendants. The objective of this study is to deepen the region's empirical understanding of the drivers behind the persistent exclusion of the afro-descendants, as a first step to design appropriate solutions. The report proposes a framework to organize and think of the myriad options available to address their situations, based on the experience accumulated by the region and the data available.
Publication(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017-05-16) World Bank ; International Finance Corporation ; Multilateral Investment Guarantee AgencyThe country partnership framework (CPF) for Brazil covers the six-year period from FY18 to FY23.1 The CPF is aligned with the objectives of the country’s development strategy as outlined in the Brazil growth strategy presented by the authorities and is rooted in the findings and recommendations of the World Bank Group (WBG) systematic country diagnostic (SCD) for Brazil, which contains an analysis of key constraints for inclusive and sustainable growth. The CPF supports the country in making further progress on the WBG twin goals of eliminating extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity through a program that focuses on creating the conditions for faster job growth. The CPF reflects the priorities of the Brazilian authorities and the resources and capacity of the WBG to deliver against these priorities. The CPF is built around three focus areas: (i) fiscal consolidation and government effectiveness; (ii) private sector investment and productivity; and (iii) equitable and sustainable development. The CPF continues the strong focus on improved service delivery that was at the center of the previous strategy, including through the implementation of the large existing portfolio, but with a growing emphasis on new management models that promise to increase the efficiency and efficacy of the public sector in addition to safeguarding access for the poor.