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PublicationUnleashing Russia's Business Potential : Lessons from the Regions for Building Market Institutions(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2002-03) Broadman, Harry G.; Broadman, Harry G.This analyzes, based on more than seventy company case studies across 13 Russian regions during the spring, summer, and fall of 2000, and the summer of 2001, examines four key issues that Russian firms face in carrying out business transactions in Russia's regional markets: 1) the state of enterprise competition; 2) the regulatory regime governing the delivery of infrastructure services (with a focus on the telecom, and Internet sector); 3) the sources, and use of corporate finance; and, 4) the efficacy of the court system in fostering the settlement of commercial disputes. The study formulates policy recommendations for each of the areas analyzed. In so doing, it sheds light on salient inter-regional differences in existing policy frameworks, and in the structure, and nature of the country's enterprise sector, as well as on how regional governments, and firms both respond to, and shape these differences. The study also highlights the evolution of inter-regional policy, and economic changes over time, assessing the extent to which, two years after the 1998 crisis, enterprise restructuring at the local level, has been affected by the devaluation of the ruble. PublicationAgricultural Trade Liberalization in a New Trade Round : Perspectives of Developing Countries and Transition Economies(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001-09) Ingco, Merlinda; Winters, L. Alan; Ingco, Merlinda; Winters, L. AlanThis discussion paper contains seven studies, designed to a) review, and assess the impact of the implementation of the Uruguay Round (UR) Agreement on Agriculture, and, b) to analyze the key issues, interests, and options for developing countries in the new World Trade Organization's (WTO) round of multilateral trade negotiations in agriculture. Six regional case studies are presented: Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Latin America, Eastern Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, and industrial countries. A quantitative analysis of the dynamics of multilateral liberalization in food, and agricultural trade is also presented. Among some of the key conclusions, it is suggested that much preparatory work was achieved in bringing agriculture fully into the multilateral trading system during the UR, and, a significant achievement was the development of a broad framework for reductions in trade-distorting policies. The UR was also successful in negotiating reduced volumes of subsidized exports, and in providing at least, minimum levels of access to markets. There were, however, a number of limitations in both what was agreed to, and in how the Agreement in Agriculture has actually been implemented, as the analyses show that the work achieved during the UR, will be of limited value, unless market distortions in agriculture can be reduced substantially. If liberal agricultural trade is to succeed, its limitations should be addressed, and policy induced distortions to agricultural production, be substantially reduced. PublicationFarm Debt in the CIS : A Multi-Country Study of the Major Causes and Proposed Solutions(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001-05) Csaki, Csaba; Lerman, Zvi; Sotnikov, SergeyThe objective of this study is to support the farm privatization and restructuring process in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) by presenting a wide range of strategic and tactical options that could be applied to eliminate, or at least reduce, the main factors responsible for the destructive accumulation of debt in large farm enterprises. This objective has accomplished by documenting and analyzing the indebtedness of large-scale farms in five countries of CIS (Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine) developing appropriate proposals, and initiating a dialogue with the government on the subject of farm debt resolution. The study presents a region-wide analysis of the farm debt problem based on data collected from selected countries in CIS, and develops proposals for the respective countries as well as for the region as a whole. PublicationFostering Competition in China's Power Markets(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001-03) Berrah, Noureddine; Lamech, Ranjit; Zhao, ZhaoThis report proposes a strategy for developing competitive pool markets in China's power sector and for increasing energy trade between competitive pool markets areas. A three-stage approach is offered for developing the competitive pool markets. During stage 1, a mandatory competitive pool will be created with a single buyer. During stage 2, wholesale competition will be permitted. During stage 3, retail competition will be allowed, making the market fully competitive. The staged approach allows competitive market principles to be introduced immediately within existing institutions. This will allow needed skills and parallel economic reforms to be developed gradually and so facilitate increased competition in the later stages. The report also discusses key elemetns of competitive market development, including the organization of transmission services and transition issues such as dealing with stranded costs and mitigating market power among generators. PublicationFree Trade Area Membership as a Stepping Stone to Development : The Case of ASEAN(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001-02) Fukase, Emiko; Martin, WillThis study investigates the economic impacts of accession to the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) by the new member countries of Cambodia, the Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Vietnam. The trade policies of these countries are examined, and a series of quantitative analyses were undertaken to evaluate the impacts of accession. The results showed that the static impacts of reducing tariffs against ASEAN members are beneficial, although the magnitude of the net gains is diminished by the trade diversion resulting from the discriminatory nature of the reforms. The binding commitments on protection rates under the AFTA plan provide an important initial step to more broader and more beneficial trade reforms. The study focuses on some of the key country-specific policy challenges associated with trade liberalization--such as declining tariff revenues in Cambodia, and the negative impacts on sensitive domestic industries in Vietnam. The study recommends that accession to AFTA be viewed as an important transitional step in the broader process of trade reform and institutional development needed for successful development and poverty alleviation. PublicationMeasuring and Apportioning Rents from Hydroelectric Power Developments(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2000-07) Rothman, MitchellThis paper deals with economic rents arising from the development of hydroelectric generation on international watercourses. The paper briefly defines the concept of economic rent and its application to hydroelectric developments. It explores two areas of precedents that shows how the concept could be applied in developments on international watercourses. First, it looks at international law on the ownership and rights of use of such watercourses. Then it looks at past instances of international watercourse development that have used the idea of rent, or rent-like concepts, to determine how to share the benefits from the development. The paper notes that international convention and practice on this topic expect that riparian countries will negotiate the sharing of benefits from international developments. What the paper then seeks is a guide to such negotiations. The paper also devotes some attention to methods for quantifying the rents generated by projects in various situations: where a competitive market exists for the project's output; where no market exists; or where the hydroelectric development is part of a multipurpose project. In general, the total benefit from a cooperative development of an international watercourse is greater than the benefits from separate independent developments. Each participant should get from the cooperative development at least as much rent as it could have obtained from an independent development.