World Bank Discussion Papers
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Informal documents that present unpolished results of research or country analysis. They are circulated to encourage discussion and comment. Papers for which rapid publication is particularly important were often issued in this series. This series was superseded by the World Bank Working Papers series in 2003 and the World Bank Studies series in 2010.
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The Environmental Implications of Privatization : Lessons for Developing Countries(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2002-04) Lovei, Magda ; Gentry, Bradford S.Governments worldwide have increasingly recognized the economic potential and fiscal advantages of privatization. What is less well recognized is that, under the right conditions, privatization can also yield environmental benefits and contribute to sustainable development. This report reviews a number of case studies to draw lessons about the environmental implications of privatization. It emphasizes that privatization offers an opportunity for making strategic decisions with longer-term impacts; streses that integrating environmental and social considerations into the privatization process leads to better, more sustainable outcomes; and recommends approaches to building on the positive linkages between privatization and environmental protection.
Closing the Gap in Access to Rural Communications : Chile 1995-2002(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2002-02) Wellenius, BjornThe study documents, and reviews the Chilean experience in rural telecommunications, by focusing on the principles, practical organization, basic design, and outstanding issues for extension of a more advanced form of approach to communication, and access to information. It examines in depth the results, and success factors of the Telecommunications Development Fund, established in 1994, a success largely due to the extensive reliance on market forces to determine, and allocate subsidies, to minimal regulatory intervention, and relatively simple processing. The design of the Fund proved robust, and remains the leading example of a cost-effective solution to reduce access gaps in basic communication in emerging economies. However, questions remain on the sustainability of services for the long run, on how to support the small, but still excluded rural population, and on potential, further needs in urban areas.
Financing of Private Hydropower Projects(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2000-07) Head, ChrisThis study provides an overview of the issues and challenges related to the private financing of hydropower projects in developing countries. From the very limited pool of projects that have already reached or are nearing financial closure, ten have been chosen for the study from five countries with the most active in promoting private hydro development. Collectively the case study projects provide a reasonable cross-section of private hydro schemes that have been or are being developed. The financing of greenfield private infrastructure on a limited-recourse basis in developing countries faces certain common issues irrespective of the type of project. However, hydropower faces additional difficulties caused by the site-specific nature of projects, high construction risk and long construction periods, their capital-intensive nature with a high proportion of local costs, unpredictable output subject to river flows and broader water management constraints, complex concession process to achieve transparency in the award and pricing of output, and environmental sensitivities. The study suggests the need for longer-term financing to better suit hydropower characteristics, a regulatory framework and realistic public-private risk-sharing arrangements responsive to the requirements of hydropower projects, and the careful preparation of projects by the public sector to enable their formulation on an adequate technical and contractual basis for development as a private concession.