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PublicationSocial Health Insurance for Developing Nations(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2007) Hsiao, William C.; Shaw, R. Paul; Fraker, Andrew; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Jowett, Matthew; Pinto, Diana; Ramachandra, SreekanthGood health is necessary for well-being but also has another critical impact: it causes poverty, in that large health expenditures can bankrupt families. Many nations are now hoping that formally mandated social health insurance (SHI), involving payroll taxes, will provide a solution. This report examines the principles, design, and practices of SHI for low and middle-income nations and the necessary conditions for its viability and sustainability, with a focus on design and implementation issues. This volume presents five country case studies to provide evidence and greater detail on key issues that arise at different stages of implementation in low-income countries. They have been selected to reflect on a continuum and timeline of operational stages, beginning with the initial design and legislation of SHI, the first phase of implementation, the expansion to cover larger segments of the population, and on up to completion, whereby SHI becomes the predominant form of health care financing in a country. Accordingly, Kenya has been selected for illustration of the design stage, Ghana for initiation, the Philippines for extension of population coverage, Colombia for SHI and reform of health care delivery, and Thailand for universal coverage and reform of health care delivery. This sequencing and implied timeline of case studies allows this report to reflect on two questions. First, where can a country expect to be in relation to designing and implementing SHI in, say, 10 years? Second, as countries gain experience with SHI, what can they expect to offer or achieve in terms of variations in benefit design, who administers SHI, and how providers are contracted and paid? PublicationPrivatization and Regulation of Transport Infrastructure : Guidelines for Policymakers and Regulators(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2000-06) Estache, Antonio; De Rus, Gines; Estache, Antonio; De Rus, GinesThe 1990s saw a dramatic increase in the liberalization of transport policies and a strengthening of the role played by private operators and investors in transport infrastructure. Most of these reforming countries are creating new regulatory agencies. This book aims is to contribute to the development of these regulatory skills. The book has two parts. Chapter 2 in the first part provides an overview of why economic regulation is important. It provides theoretical support to the sector-specific chapters that constitute the second part of the book. The second part covers four subsectors: airports, ports, railways, and roads. Each chapter follows exactly the same structure. The first section provides snapshot of the key economic characteristics of the sector and discusses their relevance from the viewpoint of a regulator. The second section summarizes the main privatization and regulation trends that have been observed in the sector. It gives an overview of main options offered by international experience and covers a few case studies that illustrate those options. The third section covers price regulation and highlights the price-related issues that characterize the sector. The fourth section does the same for quality regulation. The fifth section discusses the main performance indicators that the sector's regulators should be able to rely on to be effective in their jobs.