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PublicationLeadership and Innovation in Subnational Government : Case Studies from Latin America(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2004) Campbell, Tim; Fuhr, Harald; Campbell, Tim; Fuhr, HaraldThis book is about inventing successes and good practices of governments that are "closer to the people." Numerous examples throughout Latin America indicate-often despite macroeconomic instability, high inflation, and strong top-down regulation-that subnational actors have repeatedly achieved what their central counterparts preached: sound policymaking, better administration, better services, more participation, and sustained economic development. But what makes some governments change course and move toward innovation? What triggers experimentation and, eventually, turns ordinary practice into good practice? The book answers some of these questions. It goes beyond a mere documentation of good and best practice, which is increasingly provided through international networks and Internet sites. Instead, it seeks a better understanding of the origins and fates of such successes at the micro level. The case studies and analytical chapters seek to explain: How good practice is born at the local level; Where innovative ideas come from; How such ideas are introduced in a new context, successfully implemented, and propagated locally and beyond; What donors can do to effectively assist processes of self-induced and bottom-up change. PublicationGranting and Renegotiating Infrastructure Concessions : Doing it Right(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2004-01) Guasch, J. LuisIn most developing and industrial countries, infrastructure services have traditionally been provided by government enterprises, but in developing countries at least, these enterprises have often proven to be inefficient, unable to provide much-needed investments, and manipulated to achieve political objectives. By contrast, many studies have shown that over the past 30 years, private (or privatized) enterprises in developing countries have, on average, delivered superior performance and needed investments. Explanations differ on why this discrepancy exists. Private enterprises are driven by a desire for profits and may have more professional know-how in management, operating procedures, and use of appropriate technology. But perhaps the most important reason for their stronger performance is that privatization makes intervening in enterprise operations difficult for governments and politicians, so government manipulation is less likely. However, the issue, in general, has been how to ensure that the improved performance and efficiency gains are passed through to the users through lower tariffs and increased coverage, while allowing firms to earn a fair rate of return on their investments. PublicationA Primer on Efficiency Measurement for Utilities and Transport Regulators(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2003-01) Coelli, Tim; Estache, Antonio; Perelman, Sergio; Trujillo, LourdesThis book is intended to help regulators learn about the tools needed to measure efficiency. It is based on lecture notes from courses the World Bank Institute offers in English, French and Spanish throughout the developing world and has benefited from feedback received during those courses. It provides an overview of the various dimensions of efficiency that regulators should be concerned with. It also summarizes the main quantification techniques available to facilitate decisions in the most common regulatory processes. The issues covered should be of particular interest to those policymakers and regulators interested in measuring relative efficiency and in implementing any incentive-based regulatory mechanism that requires the measurement of efficiency, such as price caps, revenue caps, or yardstick competition. The book focuses on methodology selection, data collection, and related issues. It provides readers with all the conceptual tools they need to make real-life decisions. It is also supported by a web site from which readers can download software they can use to implement the techniques described. PublicationResolution of Financial Distress : An International Perspective on the Design of Bankruptcy Laws(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2001-05) Claesens, Stijn; Djankov, Simeon; Mody, Ashoka; Claesens, Stijn; Djankov, Simeon; Mody, AshokaThe institutions of bankruptcy have been at the center of the great economic events of the last decade, ranging from the Asian economic crisis, to the transition from socialism to capitalism. Our understanding of the economic, and legal structure of these institutions, as well as of their impact on economic development, has advanced considerably during this period as well. This study provides valuable information on the advances for resolution of financial distress, through theoretical studies, historical data, and evidence from recent worldwide experiences. It illustrates the possibilities, and methods of beneficial legal reform of bankruptcy procedures, as well as the pitfalls of misguided political action. The study is a timely, and valuable resource for economists, lawyers, and all others interested in institutional reform in emerging financial markets. PublicationPrivatization and Regulation of Transport Infrastructure : Guidelines for Policymakers and Regulators(Washington, DC: World Bank, 2000-06) Estache, Antonio; De Rus, Gines; Estache, Antonio; De Rus, GinesThe 1990s saw a dramatic increase in the liberalization of transport policies and a strengthening of the role played by private operators and investors in transport infrastructure. Most of these reforming countries are creating new regulatory agencies. This book aims is to contribute to the development of these regulatory skills. The book has two parts. Chapter 2 in the first part provides an overview of why economic regulation is important. It provides theoretical support to the sector-specific chapters that constitute the second part of the book. The second part covers four subsectors: airports, ports, railways, and roads. Each chapter follows exactly the same structure. The first section provides snapshot of the key economic characteristics of the sector and discusses their relevance from the viewpoint of a regulator. The second section summarizes the main privatization and regulation trends that have been observed in the sector. It gives an overview of main options offered by international experience and covers a few case studies that illustrate those options. The third section covers price regulation and highlights the price-related issues that characterize the sector. The fourth section does the same for quality regulation. The fifth section discusses the main performance indicators that the sector's regulators should be able to rely on to be effective in their jobs.