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Publication(Washington, DC : World Bank, 2008) Anderson, Kym ; Valdés, AlbertoThis book provides an overview of the evolution of distortions to agricultural incentives caused by price and trade policies in the World Bank-defined region of Latin America and the Caribbean. Following the introduction and summary, it includes commissioned country studies of one Caribbean, one Central American, and six South American economies. The chapters are followed by two appendixes. The first describes the methodology used to measure the nominal and relative rates of assistance to farmers and the taxes and subsidies involved in food consumption; the second provides country and regional summaries, in tables, of annual estimates of these rates of assistance. This study on Latin America is based on a sample of eight countries, comprising the big four economies of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; Colombia and Ecuador, two of the poorest South American tropical countries; the Dominican Republic, the largest Caribbean economy; and Nicaragua, the poorest country in Central America. Together, in 2000-04, these countries accounted for 78 percent of the region's population, 80 percent of the region's agricultural value added, and 84 percent of the total gross domestic product (GDP) of Latin America.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan, 2006) Hertel, Thomas W. ; Winters, L. Alan ; Hertel, Thomas W. ; Winters, L. AlanThis study reports on the findings from a major international research project investigating the poverty impacts of a potential Doha Development Agenda (DDA). It combines in a novel way the results from several strands of research. First, it draws on an intensive analysis of the DDA Framework Agreement, with particularly close attention paid to potential reforms in agriculture. The scenarios are built up using newly available tariff line data, and their implications for world markets are established using a global modeling framework. These world trade impacts form the basis for 12 country case studies of the national poverty impacts of these DDA scenarios. The focus countries are Bangladesh, Brazil (2 studies), Cameroon, China (2 studies), Indonesia, Mexico, Mozambique, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, and Zambia. Although the diversity of approaches taken in these studies limits the ability to draw broader conclusions, an additional study that provides a 15-country cross-section analysis is aimed at this objective. Finally, a global analysis provides estimates for the world as a whole.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan, 2006) Finger, J. Michael ; Nogués, Julio J. ; Finger, J. Michael ; Nogués, Julio J.This book is a report on success-success in trade liberalization and in the removal of trade barriers so as to integrate Latin American economies into the international economy. More particularly, this book is about how several Latin American governments created and managed safeguards and antidumping mechanisms as part of this liberalization. The core of this book is a set of studies describing how seven Latin American countries-Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Peru-have used these trade instruments. Each country study was conducted by analysts from that country. Many of the analysts were high government officials during their country's liberalization, so they have hands-on experience with the construction and the management of these instruments.
Publication(Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press, 2004) De Wulf, Luc ; Sokol, José B. ; De Wulf, Luc ; Sokol, José B.This volume presents case studies of customs modernization initiatives in eight developing countries: Bolivia, Ghana, Morocco, Mozambique, Peru, the Philippines, Turkey, and Uganda. The purpose of these case studies was to obtain a firsthand view of how these countries undertook customs reforms and to assess their success. The overall lessons learned from these studies are presented in chapter 2 of the Customs Modernization Handbook (World Bank forthcoming), a companion volume that provides policymakers, practitioners, and project managers from development agencies with an overview of the key issues they need to address in preparing and implementing customs modernization initiatives. The audience for the Customs Modernization Handbook is customs officials who are called on to design and implement customs reform and modernization strategies, as well as staff members of the World Bank and of other multilateral and bilateral development agencies who support developing countries in implementing such strategies. All the case studies except for the one on Ghana were prepared using basically the same methodology, which aimed at identifying the origins of the reforms, the main drivers, and the outcomes. The Ghana case study is somewhat different, because it focuses on how the automation of trade and customs processes took the lead in the trade facilitation and customs reform.