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PublicationTraining Levies : Evidence from Evalualtions(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2004-04) Dar, AmitThis note examines one of the most commonly used techniques for generating resources from employers - payroll levies. In many countries payroll taxes on enterprises (with reimbursement for training undertaken) have become a significant source of financing for skills training, both in specialized training institutions and in enterprises. PublicationPublic Employment Services : Functions and Innovations(World Bank, Washington, DC, 2003-09) Dar, AmitPublic Employment Services (PES) in industrialized countries have traditionally provided job-brokering services - arranging for jobseekers to obtain jobs and employers to fill vacancies. Increasingly, they also administer unemployment benefits and provide for the delivery of labor market programs. PES are still in their initial stages in developing countries where many still play the traditional role of job placement and registering the unemployed. There are several good arguments for the provision of employment services. By transmitting information, they can contribute to labor-market efficiency and transparency. PES can also promote equity in access to the labor market and help disadvantaged workers find employment. Furthermore, in countries that have an unemployment benefit system, public employment services, if well designed, can play an important role in verifying eligibility for receiving benefits and reduce costs associated with unemployment through ensuring rapid matches.