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Preventing Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing: A Practical Guide for Bank Supervisors

2022, Chatain, Pierre-Laurent, Van der Does de Willebois, Emile, Bökkerink, Maud

The COVID-19 (coronavirus) crisis was a reminder, if any were needed, that criminal creativity thrives in times of chaos, exploiting people’s fears. Unsafe face masks, counterfeit drugs, and suspect medical equipment flooded the market, touted as miracle cures against the coronavirus by unscrupulous actors wanting to turn a quick profit. Companies with no record in health won big government contracts and, as people’s situation deteriorated, organized crime stepped in to lend a “helping hand” to those suffering financial distress. Where most people saw a global public health and economic crisis, criminals saw an opportunity. What this criminal behavior, indeed almost all financial economic crime, has in common is that the funds involved move through the formal financial system. The service providers that execute those transactions are in a good position to gather firsthand intelligence on what is happening. For this reason, banks and other financial institutions have anti-money-laundering and countering the financing of terrorism (AML/CFT) obligations to find out who is paying whom and why and, if necessary, to alert the authorities. Financial institutions are the first line of defense against this criminal behavior; they are the gatekeepers to the international financial system.

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Combatting Cybercrime: Tools and Capacity Building for Emerging Economies

2017-08, World Bank, United Nations

Advances in technologies over the last 20 years have affected virtually every aspect of the waywe live and conduct our daily lives. While these technologies have been a source of good and enabled social and economic progress around the world, hardly a day goes by without news of yet another cyberattack, or the use of technology in the commission of crime. Here, at the World Bank, we know that in order for technologies, including the internet, to continue to be used as a force for economic growth and development, measures must be taken to ensure the security of the internet and the data and communications that flow over it. This Toolkit, Combating Cybercrime: Tools and Capacity Building for Emerging Economies, aims at building capacity to combat cybercrime among policy-makers, legislators, public prosecutors and investigators, as well as among individuals and in civil society at large in developing countries by providing a synthesis of good practices in the policy, legal and criminal-justice aspects of the enabling environment necessary to combat cybercrime.

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Disclosure of Project and Contract Information in Public-Private Partnerships

2013-01, World Bank Institute

This report presents a review of current practices on the disclosure of information on Public-Private Partnership (PPP) projects and contracts from 11 jurisdictions at the national and sub-national level representing 8 countries. It is part of a broader program of work being undertaken by the World Bank Institute (WBI) on increasing the transparency of public-private contracting. The objective of this review is to present emerging practices on the disclosure of information on PPP projects and contracts and to distill from these suggestions to government agencies on how they can provide more information to their public on their PPP projects. There are no grounds to believe that PPPs require greater transparency than similar projects executed through traditional public procurement. However as with publicly-executed projects PPPs can benefit from greater transparency. In addition PPPs may require considerations and approaches to disclosure not present in publicly-executed projects. The remainder of this report is structured as follows: section one presents a synthesis of observed practices and then a recommended approach in terms of essential information to be disclosed and the key instruments through which this is done; section two presents country case studies in a standardized format reflecting the recommendations in section one; annexures one and two list relevant websites, legislation and policy.

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The Russia Corporate Governance Manual : Part III. Disclosure and Transparency

2004-09-17, International Finance Corporation, U.S. Department of Commerce

The Russia corporate governance manual has been divided into and is published in six parts: (i) corporate governance introduced; (ii) good board practices; (iii) shareholder rights; (iv) information disclosure and transparency; (v) special focus section; and (vi) annexes model corporate governance documents. The first four parts contain chapters that focus on core corporate governance issues, such as a company's board structure, information disclosure practices, and shareholder rights. Part five focuses on corporate governance issues of particular importance in the Russian context, namely corporate governance concerns during a company's reorganization, within holding structures, and relating to enforcement. Part six, finally, offers practical tools in the form of model documents, for example company codes, by-laws, and contracts. All issues are closely examined through Russian law and regulations; the Federal Commission for the Securities Market's Code of Corporate Conduct (FCSM Code) Code and, when applicable, internationally recognized best practices. This manual also provides government officials, lawyers, judges, investors, and others with a framework for assessing the level of corporate governance practices in Russian companies. Finally, it serves as a reference tool for the educational institutions that will train the next generation of Russian managers, investors, and policy makers on good corporate governance practices.

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Guidance Note for Developing Government Local Currency Bond Markets

2021, Hashimoto, Hideo, Mooi, Yen, Pedras, Guilherme, Roy, Arindam, Chung, Kay, Galeza, Tadeusz, Papaioannou, Michael G., Katz, Peter, Bango, Zsolt, Gragnani, Jose Antonio, Gurhy, Bryan, Paladines, Cindy

This guidance note was prepared by International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank Group staff under a project undertaken with the support of grants from the Financial Sector Reform and Strengthening Initiative, (FIRST). The aim of the project was to deliver a report that provides emerging market and developing economies with guidance and a roadmap in developing their local currency bond markets (LCBMs). This note will also inform technical assistance missions in advising authorities on the formulation of policies to deepen LCBMs. The guidance note discusses commonly faced challenges and bottlenecks in the journey to efficient and deep LCBMs. In particular, the guidance note explores how to overcome difficulties in implementing some existing best practices. Experience points to the interdependent nature of the required development actions and the need for supportive actions outside the narrow field of LCBM agents. The challenges discussed and accompanying policy guidance draw from the IMF and World Bank’s extensive technical assistance (TA) provision in this area, cross-country experience in LCBM development, and results from a recent survey of country authorities. The guidance note intends to be a resource for a wide range of stakeholders interested in government bond market development. Country authorities and TA providers can use the diagnostic on the level of LCBM development to design a proper sequence of policy actions to further improve the functioning of the domestic government debt market. Country authorities and IMF and World Bank country teams can use the guidance note to identify key macroeconomic and financial issues linked to LCBM development and integrate it into their policy analysis and advice. The diagnostic findings regarding weaknesses in LCBMs also can be used to help identify financial vulnerabilities and their remedies, in the authorities’ ongoing financial sector surveillance and in the context of Financial Sector Assessment Programs and Financial Sector Stability Reviews.

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Your Money, Your Future : A Practical Money Management Guide for Students and Their Families

2014, International Finance Corporation

This guide has been created to assist potential student borrowers and their families in making decisions regarding money management. It is intended for students who are considering attending or are already enrolled in a tertiary education institution, and covers topics such as student loans, goal-setting, and repaying debt. The guide aims to educate students in order to make them better money managers and more responsible borrowers throughout their university careers and beyond. This document is divided into seven chapters: 1) basic financial issues; 2) creating and managing a budget; 3) student loans; 4) establishing credit; 5) managing debt; 6) repaying debt; and 7) saving and its benefits.

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Fraud and Corruption Awareness Handbook : A Handbook for Civil Servants Involved in Public Procurement

2013, World Bank

This handbook is intended for government employees involved in public procurement. It provides some insights into how fraud and corruption schemes work in public investments. The handbook identifies a range of fraud and corruption indicators, or red flags, and relevant schemes that may become apparent during the life of an investment, from design to implementation. The primary focus of this handbook is fraud and corruption in procurement, with some coverage of general governance issues. It is based on the experience of Poland s Central Anti-Corruption Bureau and the World Bank s Integrity Vice Presidency, and it presents examples referring both to public investments implemented under Polish public procurement law and international competitive bidding. This handbook aims to provide support to the managers of procuring entities in conducting public procurement by identifying frequently occurring irregularities and suggesting methods of preventing them.

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Better Cities, Better World: A Handbook on Local Governments Self-Assessments

2019-07-30, Farvacque-Vitkovic, Catherine, Kopanyi, Mihaly

The planet is becoming increasingly urban. In many ways, the urbanization wave and the unprecedented urban growth of the past 20 years have created a sense of urgency and an impetus for change. Some 54 percent of the world population—3.9 billion people—lives in urban areas today; thus, it has become clear that “business as usual” is no longer possible. This new configuration places great expectations on local governments. While central governments are subject to instability and political changes, local governments are seen as more inclined to stay the course. Because they are closer to the people, the voice of the people is more clearly heard for a truly democratic debate over the choice of neighborhood investments and city-wide policies and programs, as well as the decision process on the use of public funds and taxpayers’ money. In a context of skewed financial resources and complex urban challenges—which range from the provision of basic traditional municipal services to the “newer” agenda of social inclusion, economic development, city branding, emergency response, smart technologies, and green investment—more cities are searching for more effective and innovative ways to deal with new and old problems. Better Cities, Better World: A Handbook on Local Governments Self-Assessments is at the heart of this debate. It recognizes the complex past, current, and future challenges that cities face and outlines a bottom-line, no-nonsense framework for data-based policy dialogue and action; a common language that, for the first time, helps connect the dots between public investments programming (Urban Audit/Self-Assessment) and financing (Municipal Finances Self-Assessment). It helps address two key questions, too often bypassed when it comes to municipal infrastructure and services financing: Are we doing the right things? Are we doing things right? Better Cities, Better World: A Handbook on Local Governments Self-Assessments offers a bit of everything for everyone. • Central governments will be attracted by the purposefulness and clarity of these tools, their impact on local government capacity and performance building, and how they improve the implementation of transformative actions for policy change. • City leaders and policy makers will find the sections on objectives and content instructive and informative, with each issue placed in its context, and strong connections between data and municipal action. • Municipal staff in charge of day-to-day management will find that the sections on tasks and the detailed step-by-step walk through the process give them the pragmatic knowhow that they need. • Cities’ partners—such as bilateral and multilateral agencies, banks and funds, utility companies, civil society, and private operators—will find the foundations for more effective collaborative partnerships.

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The New Microfinance Handbook : A Financial Market System Perspective

2013-02, Ledgerwood, Joanna, Ledgerwood, Joanna

The new microfinance handbook provides a primer on financial services for the poor. It is written for a wide audience, including practitioners, facilitators, policy makers, regulators, investors, and donors working to improve the financial system, but who are relatively new to the sector. It will also be useful for telecommunication companies and other support service providers, students and academics, and consultants and trainers. Although this book is in part an update of the original handbook, the growth of the sector and the complexity of the financial market system have led to a perspective much broader than the previous 'financial and institutional perspective.' As a result, additional chapters have been added to address issues more relevant than when the original handbook was written. To reflect this complexity, the author invited a number of experts to write many of the new chapters. In addition, given that this book does not go into as much detail as the previous book did, a list of key resources at the end of each chapter provides readers additional information on specific topics. Finally, although the title still uses the term microfinance, the book very much addresses the wider financial ecosystem, moving beyond the traditional meaning of microfinance to inclusive financial systems.

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The Russia Corporate Governance Manual : Part I. Corporate Governance Introduced

2004-09-22, International Finance Corporation, U.S. Department of Commerce

The Russia corporate governance manual has been divided into and is published in six parts: (i) corporate governance introduced; (ii) good board practices; (iii) shareholder rights; (iv) information disclosure and transparency; (v) special focus section; and (vi) annexes model corporate governance documents. The first four parts contain chapters that focus on core corporate governance issues, such as a company's board structure, information disclosure practices, and shareholder rights. Part five focuses on corporate governance issues of particular importance in the Russian context, namely corporate governance concerns during a company's reorganization, within holding structures, and relating to enforcement. Part six, finally, offers practical tools in the form of model documents, for example company codes, by-laws, and contracts. All issues are closely examined through Russian law and regulations; the Federal Commission for the Securities Market's Code of Corporate Conduct (FCSM Code) Code and, when applicable, internationally recognized best practices. This manual also provides government officials, lawyers, judges, investors, and others with a framework for assessing the level of corporate governance practices in Russian companies. Finally, it serves as a reference tool for the educational institutions that will train the next generation of Russian managers, investors, and policy makers on good corporate governance practices.